Word: loGIzomai (3049)
logIZomai, log-id'-zo-mah-ee; middle from LOGos.
To take an inventory, that is, estimate (literally or figuratively). KJV "conclude", "(ac-) count (of)", "despise", "esteem", "impute", "lay", "number", "reason", "reckon", "suppose", "think (on)".
loGIzomai; future loGIsomai, future passive logisTHE-somai, aorist elogiSAme-n; aorist passive eloGIsthe-n, middle deponent from LOgos (3056), reason, word, account.
To reckon, impute, number.
- Actually, the verb means to put together with one's mind, to count, to occupy oneself with reckonings or calculations.
- In the NT,
- The present used in a passive sense. (Rom 4:4,5,24; 9:8)
- Also means to reckon, count. (1 Cor. 13:5)
- To reason. (Mk. 11:31)
- To think. (Rom. 2:3; 8:18; 1 Cor. 13:11; 2 Cor. 3:5; 10:7, 11; Phil. 4:8; 1 Pet 5:12)
- To count something to somebody means to reckon something to a person, to put to his account, either in his favor or for what he must be answerable. (Rom. 4:3,4,6,8,9,11,22; 2 Cor. 5:19; Gal. 3:6; 2 Tim. 4:16; James 2:23)
- In Rom. 4:11, the expression is used as a technical term applied to God's act of justification which is more fully explained in verse 6. It is that imputation of righteousness whose correlative is freedom from guilt, and the emphasis clearly rests upon "it is counted". (Rom. 4:10, 23, 24)
- In Acts 19:27, it means esteeming or reckoning as of no account. Such a usage is common with Paul. (Rom. 2:26; 9:8)
- When something is counted to somebody for something, it denotes that it is imputed to the person in a substitutionary manner. The expression, "to count someone with somebody", means to number someone with. (Mark 15:28; Luke 22:37)
- To reckon, to value or esteem. (Rom. 8:36; 1 Cor. 4:1; 2 Cor. 10:2; 12:6; Rom. 14:14; 2 Cor. 11:5; Phil. 3:13; Heb. 11:19; Rom. 6:11)
- To account, to conclude or infer, to believe. (Rom. 3:28)
GK 3357 (S 3049) Word occurs 40 times.
- Properly to count, calculate.
- To count, enumerate. (Mk. 15:28; Lk. 22:37)
- To set down as a matter of account. (1 Cor. 13:5, 2 Cor. 3:5; 12:6)
- To impute. (Rom. 4:3; 2 Cor. 5:19; 2 Tim. 4:16)
- To account. (Rom. 2:26; 8:36)
- eis ouDEN logisTHE-Nai, to be set at nought, despised. (Ac. 19:27)
- To regard, deem, consider. (Rom. 6:11; 14:14; 1 Cor. 4:1; 2 Cor. 10:2; Phil. 3:13)
- To infer, conclude, presume.
- Rom. 2:3; 3:28; 8:18; 2 Cor. 10:2, 7, 11; Heb. 11:19; 1 Pet. 5:12.
- To think upon, ponder.
- Consider: The basic meaning of loGIzomai has to do with counting or thinking. It is also used for crediting something for or against someone.
- Paul "considers" (or holds) that a person is justified apart from works of the law. (Rom. 3:28)
- Believers are to "consider themselves" dead to sin and alive to God in Jesus Christ. (Rom. 6:11)
- Present suffering "is not considered" to be worthy of comparison to future glory. (Rom. 8:18)
- Paul "does not consider himself" to have taken hold of the perfection for which Jesus Christ took hold of him. (Phil. 3:13)
- Paul uses loGIzomai to declare that God "credits" (or counts) faith as righteousness. We can picture faith being set down as a mark on the credit side of a ledger for rigteousness, rather than the debit side. This is the doctrine of justification by faith. Paul demonstrates that this teaching is not a new idea but has its roots in the OT, where Abraham believed God and it "was credited" to him as righteousness. (Gen. 15:6 in Rom. 4:3; see also Ga. 3:6; Jas. 2:23)
- This stands in contrast to crediting wages to someone who has worked to earn them. (Rom. 4:4)
- Just as with Abraham, faith is credited as righteousness to anyone who does not attempt to earn them but rather trusts God to give it for him by his grace. (v. 5)
- Uncircumcised people are "regarded" as circumcised if they keep the requirements of the law. (Rom. 2:26)
- The children of promise "are regarded" as Abraham's offspring. (Rom. 9:8)
- These two thoughts would have been revolutionary to a Jewish person -- that circumcision has to do with a divine decision rather than a physical act and that nonethnic Jews could be Abraham's offspring and inheritors of his promise.
- If someone "regards" a food as unclean, it is unclean for him (Rom. 14:14)
- Paul wants people to "regard" him and other church leaders as servants of Christ. (1 Cor. 4:1)
- Paul says that when he was a child, he "thought" like a child. (1 Cor. 13:11)
- Believers are to "think" about certain heavenly things. (Phil. 4:8)
- No one should "think" better of himself than is warranted by his words and actions. (2 Cor. 12:6)
- The Roman Christians are not to "think" they will escape God's judgment if they do what they judge others for. (Rom. 2:3)
- Paul does not "think" that any of his adequacy comes from himself; rather it is only from God. (2 Cor. 3:5)
- Account, No. 4, primarily signifies to reckon.
- Whether by calculation or imputation. (Gal. 3:6 R.V., "reckoned")
- Then, to deliberate, and so to suppose, account. (Rom. 8:36; 14:14 A.V., "esteemeth"; 1 Cor. 4:1; Heb. 11:19; John 11:50 A.V."consider"; Acts 19:27 "made of no account", A.V. "despised"; 1 Pet. 5:12 A.V. "suppose")
- It is used of love in 1 Cor. 13:5, as not taking account of evil, R.V. (A.V. "thinketh")
- In 2 Cor. 3:5 the Apostle uses it in repudiation of the idea that he and fellow-servants of God are so self-sufficient as to "account anything" (R.V.) as from themselves (A.V., "think"), i.e., as to attribute anything to themselves. Cp. 12:6.
- In 2 Tim. 4:16 it is used of laying to a person's "account" (R.V.) as a charge against him (A.V., "charge").
- Note: In Phil. 4:8 it signifies to think upon a matter by way of taking account of its character (R.V. margin).
- Charge, Note 6, In 2 Tim. 4:16, logizomai is rendered "laid to their charge", A.V.; R.V., "... account."
- Conclude, Note 2, For logizomai, to reckon, translated "conclude" in Rom. 3:28, A.V., R.V., "reckon".
- Count, No. 3, to reckon, is rendered "count" in 2 Cor. 10:2, R.V. (A.V., "think"); "counted" in the A.V. of Rom. 2:26; 4:3,5; 9:8 (R.V., "reckoned").
- Esteem, No. 3, to reckon, is translated "esteemeth" in Rom. 14:14 (R.V., "accounteth").
- Impute, No. 1, to reckon, take into account, or, metaphorically, to put down to a person's account, is never rendered in the R.V. by the verb to impute. In the following, where the A.V. has that rendering, the R.V. uses the verb to reckon, which is far more suitable; Rom. 4:6, 8, 11, 22, 23, 24; 2 Cor. 5:19; Jas. 2:23.
- Number, Note 1, Some manuscripts have verse 28 in Mark 15 (A.V.), where logizomai, to reckon, is translated, "He was numbered."
- Reckon, No. 1:
- Properly used of numerical calculation. (Luke 22:37)
- Metaphorically, by a reckoning of characteristics or reasons, to take into account. (Rom. 2:26; 4:3, 4; Gal. 3:6; Jas. 2:23; Rom. 9:8; 2 Cor. 5:19)
- To consider, calculate, translated to reckon in Rom. 6:11; 8:36; 2 Cor. 10:11, R.V. "let (such a one) reckon (this)".
- To suppose, judge, deem, translated to reckon in Rom. 2:3; "reckonest thou (this)", R.V. (A.V., "thinkest"); 3:28 (A.V., "we conclude"); 8:18; 2 Cor. 11:5 (A.V., "I suppose").
- To purpose, decide, 2 Cor. 10:2, R.V., "count" (A.V., "think").
- Suppose, Note 1, In 2 Cor. 11:5, A.V., logizomai, to reckon (R.V.), is rendered "I suppose"; so in 1 Pet. 5:12, A.V., R.V., "(as) I account (him)"; Silvanus was not supposed by Peter to be faithful, he was reckoned or regarded so.
- Think, No. 5:
- To think. (Rom. 2:3, R.V. "reckonest")
- In 1 Cor. 13:5, "taketh (not) account of" (RV), i.e., love does not reckon up or calculatingly consider the evil done to it (something more than refraining from imputing motives).
- 13:11, "I thought".
- In the following, for the A.V., to think, in 2 Cor. 3:5, R.V., "to account"; 10:2 (twice), "count"; 10:7, "consider"; 10:11, "reckon"; 12:6, "account".
- In Phil. 4:8, "think on (these things)", it signifies "make those things the subjects of your thoughtful consideration", or "carefully reflect on them".
- To reckon, count, compute, calculate, count over.
- To take into account, to make an account of.
- Metaphorically to pass to one’s account, to impute.
- A thing is reckoned as or to be something, i.e. as availing for or equivalent to something, as having the like force and weight.
- To number among, reckon with.
- To reckon or account.
- To reckon inward, count up or weigh the reasons, to deliberate.
- By reckoning up all the reasons, to gather or infer.
- To consider, take into account, weigh, meditate on.
- To suppose, deem, judge.
- To determine, purpose, decide. This word deals with reality. If I "logizomai" that my bank book has $25 in it, it has $25 in it. Otherwise I am deceiving myself. This word refers to facts not suppositions.
- HELPS Word-studies:
3049 logIZomai (the root of the English terms "logic, logical").
Properly, compute, "take into account"; reckon (come to a "bottom-line"), i.e. reason to a logical conclusion (decision).
Word: kakOS (2556)
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kakOS, kak-os'; adjective; apparently a primary word.
Worthless (intrinsically, such; whereas 4190 pone-rOS properly refers to effects), i.e. (subjectively) depraved, or (objectively) injurious. KJV "bad, evil, harm, ill, noisome, wicked".
- Actively causing evil, i.e. hurtful, harmful. (Rom. 14:20; Tit. 1:12; Rev. 16:2; Sept.: Prov. 16:4; Amos 6:3)
- In the neuter, evil, i.e. cause or source of evil. (James 3:8)
- Evil done to anyone, harm, injury. (Acts 16:28; 28:5; Rom 12:17,21; 13:10; 1 Thess 5:15; 1 Pet. 3:9,11)
- In words, evil speaking. (1 Pet. 3:10; Sept.: Mic. 7:3)
- Pl. evils, i.e., troubles, affliction. (Lk. 16:25; Acts 9:13; 2 Tim. 4:14; LXX: Gen. 44:34; 48:16; Is. 46:7; Jer. 14:8)
kakOS. Word occurs 50 times.
- Bad, of a bad quality or disposition, worthless, corrupt, depraved. (Mt. 21:41; 24:48; Mk. 7:21)
- Wicked, criminal, morally bad.
- to kakON, evil, wickedness, crime. (Mt. 27:23; Acts 23:9)
- Deceitful. (1 Pet. 3:10)
- Mischievous, harmful, destructive.
- to kakON, evil, mischief, harm, injury. (Tit. 1:12)
- to kakON, evil, misery, affliction, suffering. (Lk. 16:25)
- Bad, No. 1, Adjective. kakos conveys the idea of something that is "evil, bad, wicked, wrong".
- Evil, No. 4, Adjective. kakos conveys the idea of something that is "evil, bad, wicked, wrong"--i.e., a perversion of what pertains to goodness. Generally speaking, it is not a significant term in the NT, for pone-ros and hamartia are usually preferred terms for the expression of evil and personal guilt. kakos is the wider term. The presence of kakos raises the question of the origin, nature, and purpose of evil in relation to God, man, and providence. Theologians refer to this concept as the question of theodicy. In the NT good and evil are opposites, but they are not equal. Since "God cannot be tempted by evil", the root of evil cannot lie in God. (Jas. 1:13)
The use of kakos can be loosely divided into what is morally or ethically evil and what is destructive, damaging, or harmful.
- People as morally or ethically evil. (Mt. 21:41; 24:48; Phil. 3:2; Rev. 2:2)
- The same applied to qualities, emotions, deeds, etc. (Jn. 18:23, 30; Rom. 1:30; 3:8; 7:19, 21; 13:4; 14:20; 16:19; 1 Cor. 13:5; 2 Cor. 13:7; 1 Thess. 5:15; 1 Pet. 3:9, 12)
- Jesus goes so far as to say that the heart is the seat of evil. (Mk. 7:21)
- Objects, events, and actions are credited with being kakos in a destructive or damaging way in various Scriptures. (Lk. 16:25; Acts 16:28; 28:5; Tit. 1:12; Rev. 16:2)
- These two concepts are joined when the love of money (an emotion) and the tongue (destructive object) are both given credit for being present at the root of kakos. (1 Tim. 6:10; Jas. 3:8)
- Wicked, No. 7, Adjective. kakos conveys the idea of something that is "evil, bad, wicked, wrong".
- Wrong, No. 1, Adjective. kakos conveys the idea of something that is "evil, bad, wicked, wrong".
- Bad, No. 1. Indicates the lack in a person or thing of those qualities which should be possessed; it means bad in character:
It is the opposite of agathOS, good.
- Morally, by way of thinking, feeling, or acting.
- Thoughts. (Mark 7:21)
- Company. (1 Cor. 15:33)
- Desire. (Col. 3:5)
- All kinds of evil. (1 Tim. 6:10)
- Evil for evil. (1 Pet. 3:9)
- In the sense of what is injurious or baneful.
- The tongue as a restless evil. (James 3:8)
- Evil beasts. (Tit. 1:12)
- Harm. (Acts 16:28)
- Once it is translated "bad". (2 Cor. 5:10)
- Evil, Adjective No. 1. Stands for whatever is evil in character, base, in distinction (where the distinction is observable) from pone-rOS, which indicates what is evil in influence and effect, malignant. kakOS is the wider term and often covers the meaning of pone-rOS. kakOS is antithetic to kalOS, fair, advisable, good in character, and to agathOS, beneficial, useful, good in act. Hence it denotes what is useless, incapable, bad. pone-rOS is essentially antithetic to chre-stOS, kind, gracious, serviceable. Hence it denotes what is destructive, injurious, evil. As evidence that pone-rOS and kakOS have much in common, though still not interchangeable, each is used of
The use of kakOS may be broadly divided as follows:
- Thoughts. (Matt. 15:19; Mark 7:21)
- Speech. (Matt. 5:11; 1 Pet. 3:10)
- Actions. (2 Tim. 4:18; 1 Thess. 5:15)
- Man. (Matt. 18:32; 24:48)
- Of what is morally or ethically evil
- Persons. (Matt. 21:41; 24:48; Phil. 3:2; Rev. 2:2)
- Qualities, emotions, passions, deeds. (Mark 7:21; John 18:23, 30; Rom. 1:30; 3:8; 7:19, 21; 13:4; 14:20; 16:19; 1 Cor. 13:5; 2 Cor. 13:7; 1 Thess. 5:15; 1 Tim. 6:10; 2 Tim. 4:14; 1 Pet 3:9, 12)
- Of what is injurious, destructive, baneful, pernicious. (Luke 16:25; Acts 16:28; 28:5; Tit. 1:12; Jas. 3:8)
- kakOS and pone-rOS together as "noisome and grievous". (Rev. 16:2)
- Harm, Noun No. 1.
kakOS, evil, is rendered "harm". (Acts 16:28; 28:5)
- Ill, No. 1.
kakOS, bad, is used in the neuter as a noun and translated "ill". (Rom. 13:10)
- Miserable, Adjective No. 1.
kakOS, bad, evil, is translated "miserable" (RV), "wicked" (KJV). (Matt 21:41)
- Noisome, No. 1.
kakOS, evil, is translated "noisome". (Rev. 16:2)
- Wicked, Note No. 1.
kakOS is translated "wicked" (KJV), "miserable" (RV). (Matt. 21:41)
kakOS, kakE-, kakON, the LXX for ra^? (from Homer down), bad (KJV (almost uniformly) evil).
- Universally, of a bad nature; not such as it ought to be.
- (Morally, i. e.) of a mode of thinking, feeling, acting; base, wrong, wicked:
- Of persons. (Matthew 21:41; Philippians 3:2; Revelation 2:2.
- dialogisMOI. (Mark 7:21)
- homiLIai. (1 Corinthians 15:33)
- epithyMIa. (Colossians 3:5 [Proverbs 12:12])
- ERga (better ergON). (Romans 13:3)
- Neuter kakON, to kakON, evil i.e. what is contrary to law, either divine or human, wrong, crime. ([John 18:23]; Acts 23:9; Romans 7:21; Romans 14:20; Romans 16:19; 1 Corinthians 13:5; Hebrews 5:14; 1 Peter 3:10; 3 John 1:11)
- Plural (evil things). (Romans 1:30; 1 Corinthians 10:6; 1 Timothy 6:10 [PANta ta kakA all kinds of evil]; James 1:13)
- kakON poiEIN, to do, commit evil. (Matthew 27:23; Mark 15:14; Luke 23:22; 2 Corinthians 13:7; 1 Peter 3:12)
- to kakON. (Romans 13:4)
- ta kakA, kakON, to kakON PRASsein. (Romans 7:19; Romans 9:11; [2 Corinthians 5:10 R G L Tr marginal reading])
- to kakON katergAZesthai. (Romans 2:9)
- Specifically of wrongs inflicted. (Romans 12:21)
- kakON ergAZomai tini, to work ill to one. (Romans 13:10)
- enDEIKymi. (2 Timothy 4:14)
- poiO-. (Acts 9:13)
- apoDIdo-mi kakON anTI kakOU. (Romans 12:17; 1 Thessalonians 5:15; 1 Peter 3:9)
- Troublesome, injurious, pernicious, destructive, baneful.
- Neuter kakON, an evil, that which injures. (James 3:8)
- With the suggestion of wildness and ferocity, the-RIa. (Titus 1:12)
- Substantially equivalent to bad, i. e. distressing, whether to mind or to body, HELKos kakON kai pone-rON, KJV a noisome and grievous sore. (Revelation 16:2)
- kakON PRASso- emauTO-, Latin vim mihi infero, to do harm to oneself. (Acts 16:28)
- kakON ti PAScho-, to suffer some harm. (Acts 28:5)
- ta kakA, evil things, the discomforts which plague one, opposed to ta agathA, the good things, from which pleasure is derived. (Luke 16:25)
- HELPS Word-studies:
2556 kakOS (an adjective, and the root of 2549 kaKIa, "inner malice").
Properly, inwardly foul, rotten (poisoned); (figuratively) inner malice flowing out of a morally-rotten character (= the "rot is already in the wood").
[2556 kakOS is often a pronominal adjective (i.e. used as a substantive) meaning, "wickedness, inner evil."]