Word: logikOS (3050)
  • Strong's:
    logikOS, log-ik-os'; Adjective.
    1. Reasonable, rational.
    2. Metaphorical, as contrasted with the literal.
  • Thayer's:
    logikOS, logike-, logikON (from LOGos reason) (Tim. Locr., Demosthenes, others), rational (Vulg. rationabilis); agreeable to reason, following reason, reasonable: laTREIa logikE-, the worship which is rendered by the reason or soul ('spiritual'), Romans 12:1 (logike- kai anAIMaktos prosphorA, of the offering which angels present to God, Test xii. Patr. (test. Levi � 3), p. 547, Fabric. edition; (cf. Athenagoras, suppl. pro Christ. � 13 at the end)); to logikON GALa, the milk which nourishes the soul (see GALa), 1 Peter 2:2 (logike- trophE-, Eus. h. e. 4, 23 at the end).

Word: LOGion (3051)

  • Strong's:
    LOGion, log'-ee-on; Noun, Neuter.
    Plural: Oracles, divine responses or utterances (it can include the entire Old Testament).

Word: LOGios (3052)

  • Strong's:
    LOGios, log'-ee-os; Adjective.
    Eloquent, gifted with learning.

Word: logisMOS (3053)

  • Strong's:
    logisMOS, log-is-mos'; Noun, Masculine.
    Reasoning, thinking; a conception, device.
  • Thayer's:
    logismOS, logismOU, ho (logIZomai)
    1. A reckoning, computation.
    2. A reasoning: such as is hostile to the Christian faith, 2 Corinthians 10:4(5) (KJV "imaginations").
    3. A judgment, decision: such as conscience passes, Romans 2:15 (KJV "thoughts"). (Thucydides, Xenophon, Plato, Demosthenes, others; the LXX for Hebrew mache^sha^bha^h, as Proverbs 6:18; Jeremiah 11:19; Psalm 32:10.)

Word: logomachEo- (3054)

  • Strong's:
    logomachEo-, log-om-akh-eh'-o; Verb.
    I contend about words.

Word: logomachIa (3055)

  • Strong's:
    logomachIa, log-om-akh-ee'-ah; Noun, Feminine.
    Contention about words, an unprofitable controversy.

Word: LOGos (3056)

  • Strong's:
    LOGos, log'-os; Noun, Masculine.
    A word, speech, divine utterance, analogy.
Word: AKakos (172)
  • Strong's:
    AKakos, -on; ak'-ak-os; Adjective.
    Innocent, guileless, simple.

Word: kakIa (2549)

  • Strong's:
    kakIa, -as, he-; kak-ee'-ah; Noun, Feminine.
    1. Evil (i.e. trouble, labor, misfortune).
    2. Wickedness.
    3. Vicious disposition, malice, spite.

Word: kakIa (2549)

  • Strong's:
    kakIa, -as, he-; kak-ee'-ah; Noun, Feminine.
    1. Evil (i.e. trouble, labor, misfortune).
    2. Wickedness.
    3. Vicious disposition, malice, spite.

Word: kakoE-theia (2550)

  • Strong's:
    kakoE-theia, -as, he-; kak-o-ay'-thi-a; Noun, Feminine.
    Evil-mindedness, malignity, malevolence.
  • Thayer's:
    kakoE-theia (kakoe-thia WH), kakoe-THEIas, he- (from kakoE-the-s, and this from kakOS and E-THos).
    Bad character, depravity of heart and life, Xenophon, Plato, Isocrates, others; 4 Macc. 1:4, where cf. Grimm, p. 299; specifically used of malignant subtlety, malicious craftiness: Romans 1:29 (3 Macc. 3:22; Additions to Esther 8; Clement of Rome, 1 Cor. 35, 5 [ET]; Josephus, Antiquities 1, 1, 4; 16, 3, 1; (contra Apion 1, 24, 4); Polybius 5, 50, 5, etc.). On the other hand, Aristotle, rhet. 2, 13 (3, p. 81) defines it to ePI to CHEIRon hypolambANein PANta (taking all things in the evil part, Genevan N. T. Cf. Trench, � xi).

Word: kakologEo- (2551)

  • Strong's:
    kakologEo-; kak-ol-og-eh'-o; Verb.
    To speak ill of.
    I speak evil of, curse, revile, abuse.
  • Thayer's:
    kakologEo-, kakoLOGo-; 1 aorist infinitive kakologE-Sai; (kakoLOGos); equivalent to kakO-S LEGo- (which the old grammarians prefer, see Lob. ad Phryn., p. 200).
    1. To speak ill of, revile, abuse, one; to calumniate, traduce: tina, Mark 9:39; ti, Acts 19:9; (2 Macc. 4:1; Lysias, Plutarch, others).
    2. Hellenistically, to imprecate evil on, curse: tina, Matthew 15:4; Mark 7:10 (so for Hebrew qille^l, Proverbs 20:20; Ezekiel 22:7; Exodus 22:28).

Word: kakopATHeia (2552)

  • Strong's:
    kakopATHeia, -as, he-; kak-op-ath'-i-a; Noun, Feminine.
    Experience of evil, suffering, distress, affliction, perseverance.

Word: kakopathEo- (2553)

  • Strong's:
    kakopathEo-; kak-op-ath-eh'-o; Verb.
    To suffer evil.
    I suffer evil, endure affliction.

Word: kakopoiEo- (2554)

  • Strong's:
    kakopoiEo-; kak-op-oy-eh'-o; Verb.
    To do evil.
    I do harm, do wrong, do evil, commit sin.
  • Thayer's:
    kakopoiEo-, kakopoiO-; 1 aorist infinitive kakopoiE-Sai; (kakopoiOS).
    1. To do harm: Mark 3:4; Luke 6:9.
    2. To do evil, do wrong: 1 Peter 3:17; 3 John 1:11. ((Aeschylus, Aristophanes), Xenophon, Polybius, Antoninus, Plutarch; the LXX.)

Word: kakopoiOS (2555)

  • Strong's:
    kakopoiOS, -on; kak-op-oy-os'; Adjective.
    An evildoer.
    1. Doing evil.
    2. Substantive: An evil-doer.

Word: kakOURgos (2557)

  • Strong's:
    kakOURgos, -on; kak-oor'-gos; Adjective.
    A criminal.
    Literally, an evil-worker. A criminal.

Word: kakouCHEo- (2558)

  • Strong's:
    kakouCHEo-; Verb.
    To ill-treat.
    I treat evilly, hurt, torment.

Word: kakOo- (2559)

  • Strong's:
    kakOo-, kak-o'-o; Verb.
    To ill-treat.
    I treat badly, afflict, embitter, make angry.

Word: kakO-S (2560)

  • Strong's:
    kakO-S, kak-oce'; Adverb.
    Badly, evilly, wrongly.

Word: KAKo-sis (2561)

  • Strong's:
    KAKo-sis, -eo-s, he-; kak'-o-sis; Noun, Feminine.
    Affliction, ill-treatment, oppression, misery.

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Word: ψηφίζω pse-PHIzo- (5585)
  • Strong's:
    pse-phizo-, psay-fid'-zo; Verb.
    From PSE-phos; to use pebbles in enumeration, i.e. (generally) to compute—count.
    To count, calculate.
    Usage: reckon, compute, calculate.
  • Thayer's: pse-PHIzo-, 1 aorist epse-phisa
    1. To count with pebbles, to compute, calculate, reckon (te-n daPAne-n, "the cost"). Luke 14:28.
    2. (ton arithMON) To explain by computing. Rev. 13:18.
    3. (Polybius, Plutarch, Palaeph., Anthol.; commonly and indeed chiefly in the middle voice in the Greek writings) To give one's vote by casting a pebble into the urn; to decide by voting.
    Compare: sygpse-PHIzo-, katapse-PHIzo-, sympse-PHIzo-.
Trench's Synonyms on kakIa and kakoE-THeia

It would be a mistake to regard kakIa in the N. T. as embracing the whole complex of moral evil. In this latitude no doubt it is often used; thus aretE- and kakIa are virtue and vice (Plato, Rep. 444 d); aretAI kai kakIai virtues and vices (Aristotle, Rhet. ii. 12; Ethic. Nic. vii. 1; Plutarch, Conj. Praec. 25, and often); while Cicero (Tusc. iv. 15) refuses to translate kakIa by 'malitia,' choosing rather to coin 'vitiositas' for his need, and giving this as his reason: 'Nam malitia certi cujusdam vitii nomen est, vitiositas omnium;' showing plainly hereby that in his eye kakIa was the name, not of one vice, but of the viciousness out of which all vices spring. In the N. T., however, kakIa is not so much viciousness as a special form of vice. Were it viciousness, other evil habits of the mind would be subordinated to it, as to a larger term including the lesser; whereas in fact they are coordinated with it (Rom. 1:29; Col. 3:8; 1 Pet. 2:1). We must therefore seek for it a more special meaning; and, comparing it with pone-rIa, we shall not err in saying that kakIa is more the evil habit of mind, the 'malitia,' by which Cicero declined to render it, or, as he elsewhere explains it, 'versuta et fallax nocendi ratio' (Nat. Deor. iii. 30; De Fin. iii. 11 in fine); while pone-rIa is the active outcoming of the same. Thus Calvin says of kakIa, (Eph. 4:31): 'Significat hoc verbo [Apostolus] anima pravitatem quae humanitati et aequitati est opposita, et malignitas vulgo nuncupatur,' or as Cicero defines 'malevolentia' (Tusc. Quaest. iv. 9): 'voluptas ex malo alterius sine emolument suo.' Our English Translators, rendering kakIa so often by 'malice' (Eph. 4:31; 1 Cor. 5:8; 14:20; 1 Pet. 2:1), show that they regarded it very much in this light. With this agrees the explanation of it by Theodoret on Rom. 1: kakIan kalEI te-n psychE-S epI ta CHEIRo- rhopE-N, kai ton epI BLABe- tou PELas ginOMenon logisMON. Not exactly but nearly thus the author of what long passed as a Second Epistle of Clement's, but which now is known not to be an Epistle at all, warns against kakIa as the forerunner (proDOIporos) of all other sins (� 10). Compare the article "Bosheit" in Herzog's Real-Encycloptidie.

While kakIa occurs several times in the N. T., kakoE-THeia occurs but once, namely in St. Paul's long and terrible catalogue of the wickednesses with which the heathen world was filled (Rom. 1:29); but some four or five times in the Books of the Maccabees (3 Macc. 3:22; 7:3; 4 Macc. 1:4; 4); kakoE-THe-s there as well (4 Macc. i. 25; ii. 16); never in the Septuagint. We have translated it 'malignity.' When, however, we take it in this wider meaning, which none would deny that it very often has (Plato, Rep. i. 384 d; Xenophon, De Van. xiii. 16), or in that wider still which Basil the Great gives it (Req. Brev. Int. 77: kakoE-THeia men estin, ho-s logIZomai, auTE- he- PRO-Te- kai kekrymMENe- kakIa tou E-THous, making it, as he thus does, exactly to correspond to the 'ill nature' of our early divines, just as the author of the Third Maccabees (3:22) speaks of some te- symPHYto- kakoe-thEIa to kalON apo-SAmenoi, die-nekO-S de eis to PHAUlon ekNEUones, when, I say, its meaning is so far enlarged, it is very difficult to assign to it any domain which will not have been already preoccupied either by kakIa or pone-rIa. I prefer therefore to understand kakoE-THeia here in the more restricted meaning which it sometimes possesses. The Geneva Version has so done, rendering it by a periphrasis, "taking all things in the evil part;" which is exactly Aristotle's definition, to whose ethical terminology the word belongs (Rhet. ii. 13): ESti gar kakoE-THeia to epI to CHEIRon hypolamBANein HAPanta: or, as Jeremy Taylor calls it, 'a baseness of nature by which we take things by the wrong handle, and expound things always in the worst sense;'1 the 'malignitas interpretantium' of Pliny (Ep. v. 7);2 being exactly opposed to what Seneca (De Ira, ii. 24) so happily calls the 'benigna rerum aestimatio.' For precisely such a use of kakoE-THo-s see Josephus, Antt. vii. 6. 1; cf. 2 Sam. x. 3. This giving to all words and actions of others their most unfavorable interpretation Aristotle marks as one of the vices of the old, in that mournful, yet for the Christian most instructive, passage, which has been referred to just now; they are kakoE-THeis and kachYPoptoi. We shall scarcely err then, taking kakoE-THeia, at Rom. 1:29, in this narrower meaning; the position which it occupies in that dread catalogue of sins entirely justifying us in treating it as that peculiar form of evil which manifests itself in a malignant interpretation of the actions of others, a constant attribution of them to the worst imaginable motives.

Nor should we take leave of kakoE-THeia without noticing the deep psychological truth attested in this secondary meaning which it has obtained, namely, that the evil which we trace in ourselves makes us ready to suspect and believe evil in others. The kakoE-THe-s this, being himself of an evil moral habit, projects himself, and the motives which actuate him, into others round him, sees himself in them; for, according to our profound English proverb, 'Ill doers are ill deemers;' or, as it runs in the monkish line, 'Autumat hoc in me quod novit perhdus in se;' and just as Love on the one side, in those glorious words of Schiller,

delightedly believes
Divinities, being itself divine;
so that which is itself thoroughly evil finds it impossible to believe anything but evil in others (Job 1:9-11; 2:4, 5). Thus the suitors in the Odyssey, at the very time when they are laying plots for the life of Telemachus, are persuaded that he intends at a banquet to mingle poison with their wine, and so to make an end of them all (Odyss. ii. 329, 330). Iago evidently believes the world to be peopled with Iagoes, can conceive of no other type of humanity but his own. Well worthy of notice here is that remarkable passage in the Republic of Plato (iii. 409 a, b), where Socrates, showing the profit that it is for physicians to have been chiefly conversant with the sick, but not for teachers and rulers with the bad, explains how it comes to pass that young men, as yet uncorrupted, are euE-THeis rather than kakoE-THeis, HAte ouk ECHontes en heautOIS paraDEIGmata homoiopaTHE- tois pone-rOIS.


  1. Grotius: 'Cum quae possumus in bonam partem interpretari, in pejorern rapimus, contra quam exigit officium dilectionis.'
  2. How striking, by the way, this use of 'interpretor,' as 'to interpret awry,' in Tacitus (himself not wholly untouched with the vice), Pliny, and the other writers of their age.

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