Word: CHAIro- (5463)
chairo-, khah'-ee-ro; a primary verb.
To be full of "cheer", that is, calmly happy or well off; impersonal especially as a salutation (on meeting or parting), be well. KJV "farewell, be glad, God speed, greeting, hail, joy (-fully), rejoice.
CHAIro-; future chaRE-somai or chaiRE-so-, 2nd aorist eCHAre-n.
To rejoice, be glad. Intransitive:
- Particularly in various constructions:
- Used in an absolute sense. (Lk. 6:23; Rom. 12:15; 1 Cor. 7:30; Phil. 2:17; 3 John 1:3; LXX Hab. 1:15)
- With the cognate noun chaRA (5479). (Mat. 2:10; John 3:29; 1 Thes. 3:9)
- Followed by the dative of cause, of that in or over which one rejoices. (Rom. 12:12; LXX Prov. 17:19)
- Followed by the accusative of cause. (Rom. 16:19; Phil. 2:18)
- With a participle in the nominative expressing the occasion of joy. (Mark 14:11; John 20:20; Phil. 2:28)
- Followed by HOti (3754), that, marking cause or occasion, meaning that, because. (Luke 10:20; John 14:28; Acts 5:41)
- With a preposition expressing the cause or occasion of joy:
- ePI, on, with the dative. (Matt. 18:13; Lk. 1:14; 13:17; Acts 15:31; 1 Cor. 13:6; 16:17; 2 Cor. 7:13; Rev. 11:10; Sept.: Prov. 2:14; Hab. 3:18)
- With en (1722), in, with the dative, to rejoice in. (Col. 1:24)
- With en followed by TOUto- HOti, "in this ... that". (Luke 10:20; Phil. 1:18; LXX Zech. 10:7)
- Preceded by en kyRIo-, in the Lord, meaning in union and communion with Him.
- Followed by diA (1223), for, with the accusative. (John 3:29)
- di hyMAS HOti, "for you because". (John 11:15)
- By aPO (575), from, with the genitive. (2 Cor. 2:3)
- Imperative and infinitive as a word of salutation or greeting.
- Imperative, CHAIre in the singular and CHAIrete in the plural in a personal salutation, meaning Joy to thee! Joy to you! the same as "Hail!" (Mat. 5:12; Luke 1:28; Phil. 4:10)
- In the infinitive CHAIrein, particularly with LEgo- (3004), I say, LEgo- CHAIrein, to wish joy, to bid, hail, salute. (2 John 1:10)
GK 5897 (S 5463) Word occurs 74 times.
To rejoice, be filled with joy (Jn. 3:29; Acts 8:39). It is the opposite of mourning (Rom. 12:15). It can refer to feelings and can result from specific situations (e.g., Lk. 1:14; 19:6), but for the believer, it is a constant state because of our relationship with Christ (Phil. 4:4; 1 Thess. 5:16).
- To rejoice, be glad, be joyful, be full of joy. (Mt. 2:10; 5:12; 18:13; Mk. 14:11; Rom. 12:12; 2 Cor. 2:3)
- A term of salutation, Hail! (Mt. 26:49)
- lego chairein, to greet. (2 Jn. 10, 11)
- An epistolary forth, Health! (Acts 15:23)
- Rejoice, No. 1, chairo-, to rejoice, is most frequently so translated. As to this verb, the following are grounds and occasions for rejoicing, on the part of believers:
- In the Lord. (Phil. 3:1; 4:4)
- His Incarnation. (Luke 1:14)
- His power. (Luke 13:17)
- His presence with the Father. (John 14:28)
- His presence with them. (John 16:22; 20:20)
- His ultimate triumph. (John 8:56)
- Hearing the gospel. (Acts 13:48)
- Their salvation. (Acts 8:39)
- Receiving the Lord. (Luke 19:6)
- Their enrolment in Heaven. (Luke 10:20)
- Their liberty in Christ. (Acts 15:31)
- Their hope. (Rom. 12:12; compare Rom. 5:2; Rev. 19:7)
- Their prospect of reward. (Matt. 5:12)
- The obedience and godly conduct of fellow believers. (Rom. 16:19; 2 Cor. 7:7,9; 13:9; Col. 2:5; 1 Thess. 3:9; 2 John 4; 3 John 3)
- The proclamation of Christ. (Phil. 1:18)
- The gospel harvest. (John 4:36)
- Suffering with Christ. (Acts 5:41; 1 Pet. 4:13)
- Suffering in the cause of the gospel. (2 Cor. 13:9a; Phil. 2:17a; Col. 1:24)
- In persecutions, trials and afflictions. (Matt. 5:12; Luke 6:23; 2 Cor. 6:10)
- The manifestation of grace. (Acts 11:23)
- Meeting with fellow believers. (1 Cor. 16:17; Phil. 2:28)
- Receiving tokens of love and fellowship. (Phil. 4:10)
- The rejoicing of others. (Rom. 12:15; 2 Cor. 7:13)
- Learning of the well-being of others. (2 Cor. 7:16)
- Farewell, No. 4, chairo-, to joy, rejoice, be glad, is used in the Imperative Mood in salutations,
- On meeting, "Hail". (Matt. 26:49)
- At parting, the underlying thought being joy. (2 Cor. 13:11)
- On other occasions.
- Glad, Verb No. 1, chairo-, is the usual word for rejoicing, being glad. To be glad. (Mark 14:11; Luke 15:32)
- Greeting, Verb No. 2, chairo-, to rejoice, used as a formula of salutation. (Acts 15:23; 23:26; James 1:1)
- Hail, chairo-, to rejoice, is used in the imperative mood
- As a salutation, only in the Gospels. In this respect it is rendered simply "hail".
- As a greeting, by the angel Gabriel to Mary, and, in the plural, by the Lord to the disciples after His resurrection. (Luke 1:28; Matt. 28:9)
- Joy, Verb No. 1, chairo-, to rejoice, be glad. It is contrasted with weeping and sorrow. (John 16:20, 22; Rom. 12:15; 1 Cor. 7:30, compare Ps. 30:5)
CHAIro-; imperfect ECHairon; future charE-Somai; 2nd aorist eCHAre-n; from Homer down; LXX for sha^mah, niyl, shuwsh.
To rejoice, be glad.
- In the proper and strict sense. ([Mk. 14:11]; Lk. 15:5,; 19:6,37; 22:5; 23:8; Jn. 4:36; 8:56; 20:20; Acts 5:41; 8:39; 11:23; 13:48: 2 Co. [6:10]; 7:7; 13:9,12 [some refer this to the broader sense of farewell]; Phil. 2:17, 28; Col. 2:5; 1 Th. 5:16; 1 Pet. 4:13; 3 Jn. 3)
- Opp. to KLAIein. (Ro. 12:15; 1 Co. 7:30)
- Opp. to KLAIein k. thre-nEIN. (Jn. 16:20)
- Opp. to LYpe-n ECHein. (Jn. 16:22)
- Joined with agalliASthai. (Mt. 5:12; Rev. 19:7)
- With skirTAN. (Lk. 6:23)
- CHAIrein en kyrIo-. (Phil. 3:1; 4:4,10)
- CHAIrein chaRAN meGAle-n, to rejoice exceedingly. (Mt. 2:10)
- chaRA CHAIrein. (Jn. 3:29)
- he- chaRA he- CHAIRomen. (1 Th. 3:9)
- CHAIrein ePI with a dative of the object. (Mt. 18:13; Lk. 1:14; 13:17; Acts 15:31; Ro. 16:19 L T Tr W H; 1 Co. 13:6; 16:17; 2 Co. 7:13; Rev. 11:10; in the Greek writings generally with a simple dative of the object as Prov. 17:19)
- diA ti. (Jn. 3:29)
- diA tina. (Jn. 11:15; 1 Th. 3:9)
- en TOUto-. (Phil. 1:18; [en t. paTHE-maSI mou, Col. 1:24])
- With an accusative of the object, to auTO. (Phil. 2:18; Ro. 16:19).
- to eph' hyMIN. (Rom. 16:19 R G)
- aPO tinos, i.q. chaRAN ECHein, to derive joy from one. (2 Co. 2:3)
- CHAIR. followed by HOti. (Jn. 14:28; 2 Co. 7:9,16; 2 Jn. 4)
- en TOUto- HOti. (Lk. 10:20)
- With a dative of the cause: te- elPIdi CHAIrontes, let the hope of future blessedness give you joy. (Ro. 12:12)
- In a broader sense. To be well, to thrive.
- In salutations, the imperative CHAIre, hail! Latin salve, (so from Homer down). (Mt. 26:49; 27:29; Mk. 15:18; Lk. 1:28; Jn. 19:3)
- Plural CHAIRete, [KJV all hail]. (Mt. 28:9)
- At the beginning of letters the infinitive CHAIrein (sc. LEGei or keLEUei). (Acts 15:23; 23:26; Jas. 1:1, [often in the books of Maccabees; cf. Grimm on 1 Macc. 10:18])
- Fully, CHAIRein LEGo-, to give one greeting, salute. (2 Jn. 10,)
- HELPS Word-studies:
xairo- (from the root xar, "favorably disposed, leaning towards" and cognate with 5485 xaris, "grace") – properly, to delight in God's grace ("rejoice") – literally, to experience God's grace (favor), be conscious (glad) for His grace.
5463 xairo- ("glad for grace") has a direct "etymological connection with xaris (grace)" (DNTT, 2, 356). S. Zodhiates (Dict, 1467) likewise comments that 5479 xara ("joy") and 5485 xaris ("grace") are cognate with 5463 xairo- ("to rejoice"), i.e. all share the same root and therefore the same core (fundamental) meaning.
[The etymological link between 5463 xairo- ("rejoice"), 5479 xara ("joy") and 5485 xaris ("grace") – i.e. that they are all cognates – is brought out by LS (p 1,976), Zod (Dict), CBL, Wigram's Englishman's Greek Concordance (Ed. Ralph Winters), Word Study Greek-English NT (Tyndale, Ed. Paul McReynolds); see also DNTT (2,356) and TDNT (9; 359,60).
TDNT likewise groups them as cognates, referring to 5479 xara as the noun-form (nomen actionis) and discussing them separately in terms of their distinctive connotations.]
Word: adiKIa (93)
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adikia, ad-ee-kee'-ah; from Adikos (94).
(Legal) injustice (properly the quality, by implication the act); moral wrongfulness (of character, life or act). KJV "iniquity, unjust, unrighteousness, wrong".
CHAIro-; genitive adiKIas, feminine noun from Adikos (94), unjust.
Injustice. What is not conformable with justice, what ought not to be, that which is wrong. Related to Adikos, unjust,
that which is out of harmony with DIke-, established usage, what is right and fit, hence injustice, unrighteousness. There is adiKIa only because there is aLE-theia (225), truth, which occupies the place of DIke-, justice. The result of adiKIa is aDIke-ma (92), evil doing. (1 John 3:4; 5:17; Acts 18:14)
- Wrong, injustice.
- Generally. (Luke 18:6; Rom. 9:14; LXX Deut. 32:4)
- Wrong or injury as done to others. (2 Cor. 12:13; LXX Ps. 7:3; Mic. 3:10)
- As related to dikaioSYne- (1343), righteousness which is often used of life and conduct. Thus adiKIa takes by antithesis the sense of impropriety, iniquity, unrighteousness, wickedness. (Luke 13:27; Acts 1:18; Rom. 1:29; 1 John 5:17)
- Fraud, deceit, guile. (John 7:18)
- Money, as in the context of the parable of Luke 16:1-9. In verse 8, it stands for money as leading to unrighteousness. In this verse, the "steward of unrighteousness [author's translation]" should be understood as the steward of money since he was entrusted with the handling of the rich man's money and apparently did nothing wrong in collecting at a discount rate bad debts which were owed to his master.
- In Acts 8:23, Peter was speaking to Simon the sorcerer, and said to him, "For I perceive that thou art in the gall of bitterness, and in the bond of iniquity [adiKIas]."
- 1 Cor. 13:6 could be taken as those material things that could be acquired through the employment of falsehood in defrauding others instead of telling the truth.
- In Hos. 12:7, the word "deceit" (4820, OT) means ill-gotten wealth and is translated in the LXX as adiKIa.
- See also Ezek. 28:18, "the iniquity of thy traffic" which means making money through false merchandising.
- See also Deut. 19:18; Mic. 6:12.
GK 94 (S 93) Word occurs 25 times.
adikia is consistently translated as either "unrighteousness" or "iniquity" in the KJV. The NIV, however, offers numerous glosses, such as
adikia specifically denotes anything that is incongruous with divine or human law, i.e., what is just or righteous.
- Evil. (James 3:6, the tongue is "a world of evil")
- Wickedness. (Rom. 6:13)
- Dishonest. (Luke 16:8)
- Worldly. (Luke 16:9)
- Sin. (Acts 8:23)
- Wrong. (2 Cor. 12:13)
- Wrongdoing. (1 John 5:17, which unequivocally declares, "All wrongdoing is sin")
- Paul declares that "the wrath of God is being revealed from heaven against all the godlessness and wickedness of men". (Rom. 1:18)
- And that "all will be condemned who have not believed the truth but have delighted in wickedness." (2 Thess. 2:12)
- Paul defends his conviction of the righteous judgment of God when rhetorically he asks, "If our unrighteousness brings out God's righteousness more clearly, what shall we say? That God is unjust in bringing his wrath on us?" (Rom. 3:5, cf. 9:14)
- Absolutely not, for God is a righteous judge and is just in all of his dealings toward us. (Rom. 3:5, Heb. 6:10)
- In light of impending wrath and judgment against adikia, Paul charged the Romans: "Do not offer the parts of your body to sin, as instruments of wickedness, but rather offer yourselves to God, as those who have been brought from death to life." (Rom 6:13)
- Paul's rationale for this appeal is rooted in the nature and evidences of salvation, "Everyone who confesses the name of the LORD must turn away from wickedness". (2 Tim. 2:19)
- Nonetheless, on those occasions when we do commit adikia, "if we confess our sins, he [God] is faithful and just and will forgive us our sins and purify us from all unrighteousness." (1 John 1:9; cf. Heb. 8:12)
- Iniquity, No. 2, denotes unrighteousness, literally, 'unrightness' (a, negative, dike-, right), a condition of not being right, whether with God, according to the standard of His holiness and righteousness, or with man, according to the standard of what man knows to be right by his conscience. In Luke 16:8 and 18:6, the phrases literally are, 'the steward of unrighteousness' and 'the judge of injustice', the subjective genitive describing their character; in 18:6 the meaning is 'injustice' and so perhaps in Rom. 9:14. The word is usually translated 'unrighteousness', but is rendered 'iniquity' in Luke 13:27; Acts 1:18; 8:23; 1 Cor. 13:6, AV, (RV 'unrighteousness'); so in 2 Tim. 2:19; Jas. 3:6.
- Unrighteousness, No. 1, denotes
- Luke 18:6, literally, 'the judge of injustice'.
- Rom. 9:14.
- Unrighteousness, iniquity.
- Luke 16:8, literally, 'the steward of unrighteousness', RV margin, i.e., characterized by unrighteousness.
- Rom. 1:18, 29; 2:8; 3:5; 6:13.
- 1 Cor. 13:6, RV, 'unrighteousness'.
- 2 Thess. 2:10, '[with all (literally, in every) deceit] of unrighteousness', i.e., deceit such as unrighteousness uses, and that in every variety. Antichrist and his ministers will not be restrained by any scruple from words or deeds calculated to deceive.
- 2 Thess. 2:12, of those who have pleasure in it, not an intellectual but a moral evil. Distaste for truth is the precursor of the rejection of it.
- 2 Tim. 2:19, RV; 1 John 1:9.
- A deed or deeds violating law and justice (virtually the same as adike-ma, an unrighteous act).
- Luke 13:27, 'iniquity'.
- 2 Cor. 12:13, 'wrong', the wrong of depriving another of what is his own, here ironically of a favor.
- Heb. 8:12, first clause, 'iniquities', literally, 'unrighteousnesses' (plural, not as AV).
- 2 Pet. 2:13, 15, RV, 'wrong doing', AV, 'unrighteousness'.
- 1 John 5:17.
- In 2 Cor. 6:14, AV, anomia, lawlessness, is translated 'unrighteousness' (RV, 'iniquity').
- adikia is the comprehensive term for wrong, or wrong-doing, as between persons; anomia, lawlessness, is the rejection of Divine law, or wrong committed against it.
adiKIa, -as, he-, (Adikos), [fr. Hdt. down].
- Injustice, of a judge. (Lk. 18:6; Ro. 9:14)
- Unrighteousness of heart and life.
- Univ. (Mt. 23:25 Grsb.; Acts 8:23; Ro. 1:18,29; 2:8; 6:13; 2 Tim. 2:19)
- Opp. to he- aLE-theia. (1 Cor. 13:6; 2 Th. 2:12)
- Opp. to he- dikaioSYne-. (Ro. 3:5; Heb. 1:9; Tdf.)
- Owing to the context, the guilt of unrighteousness. (1 John 1:9)
- aPATe- te-s adiKIas deceit which unrighteousness uses. (2 Th. 2:10)
- misTHOS adiKIas reward (i.e. penalty) due to unrighteousness. (2 Pet. 2:13)
- Spec., unrighteousness by which others are deceived. Opp. to ale-THE-S. (John 7:18)
- mamo-NAS te-s adiKIas deceitful riches. (Lk. 16:9)
- Cf. aPATe- tou PLOUtou. (Mt. 13:22)
- Others think 'riches wrongly acquired'.
- Others, riches apt to be used unrighteously. (Cf. vs. 8)
- KOSmos te-s adiKIas, a phrase having reference to sins of the tongue. (Jas. 3:6, cf. KOSmos, 8)
- Treachery, oikoNOMos te-s adiKIas [al. take it generally, 'acting unrighteously']. (Lk. 16:8)
- A deed violating law and justice, act of unrighteousness.
- PASa adiKIa hamarTIa esTI (1 Jn. 5:17)
- erGAtai te-s adiKIas. (Lk. 13:27)
- hai adiKIai iniquities, misdeeds. (Heb. 8:12, fr. LXX Jer. 38(31):34; cf. Dan. 4:20(24))
- misTHOS adiKIas reward obtained by wrong-doing. (Acts 1:18; 2 Pet 2:15)
- Spec., the wrong of depriving another of what is his. (2 Co. 12:13, where a favor is ironically called adiKIa).
- HELPS Word-studies:
adiKIa (a feminine noun derived from 1 a "not" and 1349 DIke-, "justice").
Properly, the opposite of justice.
Unrighteousness, as a violation of God's standards (justice) which brings divine disapproval.
A count (violation) of God's justice, i.e. what is contrary to His righteous judgments (what He approves).