Word: paroxYno- (3947)
paroxYno-, par-ox-oo'-no, from paRA (3844), from, of, at, by, besides, near and a derivative of oxYS (3691), sharp, swift, quick.
To sharpen alongside, that is, (figuratively) to exasperate. KJV "easily provoke, stir".
From paRA (3844), at the point of, unto, implying movement toward a certain point, and oXYno- (3691), to sharpen, incite, irritate.
- To sharpen or whet. (LXX: Deut. 32:41)
- Metaphorically, to sharpen the mind, temper, or courage of someone, to incite, to impel. In the NT it means to provoke or rouse to anger or indignation; only in the middle/passive paroXYnomai. (Acts 17:16; LXX: Deut. 1:34; 9:18,19)
GK 4236 (S 3947) Word occurs 2 times.
- To sharpen; metaphorically, to incite, stir up. (Acts 17:16)
- To irritate, provoke. (1 Cor. 13:5)
- Provoke, No. 2, primarily, "to sharpen" (akin to paroxysMOS), is used metaphorically, signifying "to rouse to anger, to provoke," in the Passive Voice, in Acts 17:16, RV, "was provoked" (AV, "was stirred"); in 1 Cor. 13:5, RV, "is not provoked" (the word "easily" in AV, represents no word in the original).
- Stir, No. 10, "stirred" in Acts 17:16.
- Properly, to make sharp, to sharpen.
- te-n MAchairan. (LXX: Deut. 32:41)
- Metaphorically, (so always in secular authors from Euripides, Thucydides, Xenophon down), to stimulate, spur on, urge (pros ti, ePI ti).
- To irritate, provoke, rouse to anger; passive, present paroXYnomai; imperfect paro-xynome-n. (Acts 17:16; 1 Cor. 13:5).
- LXX chiefly for na^ATS, to scorn, despise; besides for hikh:?iys., to provoke, make angry. (LXX: Deut. 9:18; Psalm 105:29; Is. 65:3)
- For hiq:tsiyph, to exasperate. (LXX: Deut. 9:7, 22, etc.)
- Passive for ha^ra^h, to burn with anger. (LXX: Hosea 8:5; Zech. 10:3)
- For other verbs.
- HELPS Word-studies:
3947, paroksYno- (from 3844 paRA, "alongside" and oxys, "a sharp edge").
Properly, cut close alongside, i.e. to incite ("jab") someone and stimulate their feelings (emotions); "become emotionally provoked (upset, roused to anger)" (A-S), as personally "getting to someone"; (figuratively) "to provoke feelings, spurring someone to action" (Souter).
Word: paroxysMOS (3948)
paroxysMOS, par-ox-oos-mos', from paroxYno- (3947), to sharpen alongside, exasperate.
Incitement (to good) or dispute (in anger). KJV "contention, provoke unto".
paroxysMOS; genitive paroxysMOU, masculine noun from paroXYno- (3947), to stir up, provoke.
The English word "paroxysm" is derived from it.
- In a good sense, a sharpening, used figuratively meaning an encouragement to some action or feeling. (Heb. 10:24)
- In a bad sense, a paroxysm, the stirring up of anger, sharp contention, angry dispute. (Acts 15:39; LXX: Deut. 29:28; Jer. 32:37)
GK 4237 (S 3948) Word occurs 2 times.
- An inciting, incitement. (Heb. 10:24)
- A sharp fit of anger, sharp contention, angry dispute. (Acts 15:39)
- Provocation, No. 2, denotes a stimulation (Eng., paroxysm), (cf. paroXYno-): in Heb. 10:24, "to provoke," literally, unto a stimulation (of love).
- Contention, No. 2, English, paroxysm, literally, a sharpening, hence a sharpening of the feeling, or action (para, "beside," intensive, oxus, "sharp"), denotes an incitement, a sharp contention, Acts 15:39, the effect of irritation; elsewhere in Heb. 10:24, "provoke," unto love.
paroxysMOS, paroxysMOU, ho, from paroxYno-, which see.
- An inciting, incitement: eis paroxysMON aGApe-s, KJV "to provoke unto love". (Heb. 10:24)
- Irritation (RV, contention). (Acts 15:39)
- The LXX twice for qetsheph, violent anger, passion. (Deut. 29:28; Jer. 32:37)
- HELPS Word-studies:
paroksysMOS - a provocation which literally jabs (cuts) someone so they "must" respond.
Word: oxYS (3691)
oxYS, ox-oos', probably akin to the base of akME-N (188), a point.
Keen; by analogy rapid. KJV "sharp, swift ".
GK 3955 (S 3691) Word occurs 8 times.
- Sharp, keen. (Rev. 1:16; 2:12; 14:14, 17, 18; 19:15)
- Swift, nimble. (Rom. 3:15)
- Sharp, Adjective No. 1: oxys denotes
- Sharp (English, oxy-), said
- Of a sword. (Rev. 1:16; 2:12; 19:15)
- Of a sickle. (Rev. 14:14, 17, 18 twice)
- Of motion, swift. (Rom. 3:15)
- Swift, No. 1: oxys denotes "swift". (Rom. 3:15)
oxYS, oxEIa, oxY (allied with Latin acer, acus, etc.; cf. Curtius, section 2).
- Sharp (from Homer down): romPHAIa, DREPanon. (Rev. 1:16; Rev. 2:12; Rev. 14:14, 17; Rev. 19:15; LXX: Is. 5:28; Ps. 56)
- Swift, quick (so from Herodotus 5, 9 down; cf. o-kYS fleet). (Rom. 3:15; LXX: Amos 2:15; Prov. 22:29)
Word: OXos (3690)
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OXos, ox'-os, from oxYS (3691), sharp.
Vinegar, i.e., sour wine. KJV "vinegar".
GK 3954 (S 3690) Word occurs 6 times.
- A wine of sharp flavor; posca, which was an ordinary beverage, and was often mixed with bitter herbs, etc., and this given to the condemned criminals in order to stupefy them and lessen their sufferings. (Mt. 27:48; Mk. 15:36; Lk. 23:36; John 19:29, 30)
- Vinegar, No. 1: oxos, akin to oxus, sharp, denotes sour wine, the ordinary drink of labourers and common soldiers; it is used in the four Gospels of the vinegar offered to the Lord at His crucifixion. In Matt. 27:34 the best texts have oinos, "wine" (RV). Some have oxos (KJV, vinegar), but Mark 15:23 (KJV and RV) confirms the RV in the passage in Matthew. This, which the soldiers offered before crucifying, was refused by Him, as it was designed to alleviate His sufferings. (Mark 15:36; Luke 23:36; John 19:29, 30)
- In the LXX. (Num. 6:3; Ruth 2:14; Ps. 69:21; Prov. 25:20)
OXos, OXeos, OXous, to, akin to oxYS.
- Vinegar. (Aeschylus, Hippocrates, Aristophanes, Xenophon, and following); for KHOmets (H2558). (LXX: Ruth 2:14; Num. 6:3)
- Used in the NT for Latin posca, i.e. the mixture of sour wine or vinegar and water which the Roman soldiers were accustomed to drink. (Matt. 27:34 R L marginal reading, 48; Mark 15:36; Luke 23:36; John 19:29f)
- HELPS Word-studies:
OKSos - low-grade, sour wine, given as a cheap painkiller to people condemned to crucifixion. "Apparently Jesus was offered two kinds of wine. One wine was mixed with gall (5521 xolE-), which Christ refused once He tasted it (Mt. 27:34,48) - and the other wine mixed with myrrh" (G. Archer).