Word: erethIZo- (2042)


  • Strong's:
    erethIZo-, er-eth-id'-zo, from a presumed prolonged form of Eris (2054), strife, quarrel.
    To stimulate (especially to anger). KJV "provoke".
  • Zodhiates:
    erethIZo-; future erethISo-, from erEtho- (not found in NT), to stir to anger.
    • To excite, anger, provoke, irritate. Used transitively. (Col 3:21)
    • Also to incite or stimulate to action. (2 Cor. 9:2)
Word: ERis (2054)


  • Strong's:
    ERis, er'-is; of uncertain affinity.
    A quarrel, (by implication) wrangling. KJV "contention, debate, strife, variance".
  • Zodhiates:
    ERis; genitive ERidos, feminine noun.
    • Strife, contention, wrangling. (Rom. 13:13; 1 Cor. 1:11; 3:3; 2 Cor. 12:20; Gal. 5:20; 1 Tim 6:4; Titus 3:9)
    • Accusative ERin. (Phil. 1:15)
    • Plural ERides. (1 Cor. 1:11)
    • Plural EReis. (2 Cor. 12:20)
    • Metaphorically, it means love of strife. (Rom. 1:29; Phil. 1:15)
Word: paraze-LOo- (3863)


  • Strong's:
    paraze-LOo-, par-ad-zay-lo'-o, from parA (3844) near, at, on account of, and ze-LOo- (2206), to have warmth of feeling, to envy.
    To stimulate alongside, i.e., excite to rivalry. KJV "provoke to emulation (jealousy)".
  • Zodhiates:
    paraze-LOo-; contracted paraze-LO-, future paraze-LO-so-; from paRA (3844), to the point of, unto, implying movement toward a certain point, and ze-LOo- (2206), to desire, be zealous.
    To make jealous, provoke to jealousy or emulation.
    • Figuratively spoken of Israel whom God would make by bestowing her covenant privileges on other nations. Transitive. (Rom. 10:19 quoted from Deut. 32:21; Rom. 11:11, 14)
    • Also to provoke God to jealousy or anger by rendering to idols the homage due to Him alone. (1 Cor. 10:22; LXX: 1 Kings 14:22; Ps. 37:1, 7, 8)
Word: parapikrasMOS (3894)


  • Strong's:
    parapikrasMOS, par-ap-ik-ras-mos', from parapikRAino- (3893) to embitter alongside, exasperate.
    Irritation. KJV "provocation".
  • Zodhiates:
    parapikrasMOS; genitive parapikrasMOU, masculine noun from parapikRAIno- (3893), to provoke to bitterness.
    A bitter provocation, exasperation. (Heb. 3:8, 15; LXX: Ps. 95:8)
Word: parorgIZo- (3949)


  • Strong's:
    parorgIZo-, par-org-id'-zo, from parA (3844) near, at, on account of, and orGIZo- (3710), to provoke or enrage.
    To anger alongside, i.e., enrage. KJV "anger, provoke to wrath".
  • Zodhiates:
    parorgIZo-; future parorgISo-, from paRA (3844), at the point of, unto, implying movement toward a certain point, and orgIZo- (3710), to anger, irritate.
    To provoke to anger, irritation or resentment. With the accusative. (Rom. 10:19 quoted from Deut. 32:21; Eph. 6:4; LXX: Judg. 2:12; 1 Kings 14:15)
Word: tarachE- (5016)


  • Strong's:
    tarachE-, tar-akh-ay', feminine from tarASso- (5015), to stir, agitate, roil.
    Disturbance, i.e. (of water) roiling, or (of a mob) sedition. KJV "trouble (-ing)".
  • Zodhiates:
    tarachE-; genitive tarachE-S, feminine noun from tarASso- (5015), to stir or agitate.
    A stirring up, trouble, agitation.
    • Used of water in a pool. (John 5:4)
    • Metaphorically of popular excitement meaning commotion or tumult. (Mark 13:8)
Words: thyMOS, orGE-, parorgisMOS

Trench's Synonyms:
thyMOS and orGE- are found several times together in the NT (as at Rom. 2:8; Eph. 4:31; Col. 3:8; Rev. 19:15); often also in the LXX (Ps. 78:49; Dan. 3:13; Mic 5:15), and often also in other Greek (Plato, Philebus, 47 e; Polybius, vi. 56. II; Josephus, xx. 5. 3; Plutarch, De Coh. Ira, 2; Lucian, De Cal. 23); nor are they found only in the connexion of juxtaposition, but one made dependent on the other; thus thyMOS te-s orGE-S (Rev. 16:19; cf. Job 3:17; Josh. 7:26); while orGE- thyMOU, not occurring in the NT, is fre- quent in the Old (2 Chron. 29:10; Lam. 1:12; Is. 30:27; Hos. 11:9). On one occasion in the LXX all the words of this group occur together (Jer. 21:5).

When these words, after a considerable anterior history, came to settle down on the passion of anger, as the strongest of all passions, impulses, and desires (see Donaldson, New Cratylus, 3rd ed. pp. 675-679; and Thompson, Phaedras of Plato, p. 165), the distinguishing of them occupied not a little the grammarians and philologers. These felt, and rightly, that the existence of a multitude of passages in which the two were indifferently used (as Plato, Legg. ix. 867), made nothing against the fact of such a distinction; for, in seeking to discriminate between them, they assumed nothing more than that these could not be indifferently used on every occasion. The general result at which they arrived is this, that in thyMOS, connected with the intransitive THYo-, and derived, according to Plato (Crat. 419e), aPO te-s THYseo-s kai ZEseo-s te-s psyCHE-S, �quasi exhalatio vehementior� (Tittmann), compare the Latin �fumus,� is more of the turbulent commotion, the boiling agitation of the feelings, 1 MEthe- te-s psyCHE-S, St. Basil calls it, either presently to subside and disappear,--like the Latin �excandescentia,� which Cicero defines (Tusc. iv. 9), �ira nascens et modo desistens�--or else to settle down into orGE-, wherein is more of an abiding and settled habit of mind (�ira inveterata�) with the purpose of revenge; �cupiditas doloris reponendi� (Seneca, De Ira, 5); orME- psyCHE-S, en meLEte- kaKO-seo-s kaTA tou paroXYnantos (Basil, Reg. Brev. Tract. 68); 2 the German �Zorn,� �der activ sich gegen Jemand oder etwas richtende Unwille, die Opposition des unwillig erregten Gemuthes� (Cremer). Thus Plato (Euthyph. 7) joins echTHRA, and Plutarch dysMENeia (Pericles, 39), with orGE-. Compare Theol. Stud. u. Krit. 1851, p. 99, sqq.

This, the more passionate, and at the same time more temporary, character of thyMOS (thyMOI, according to Jeremy Taylor, are �great but transient angers;� 3 cf. Luke 4:28; LXX: Dan. 3:19) may explain a distinction of Xenophon, namely that thyMOS in a horse is what orGE- is in a man (De Re Eques. ix. 2; cf. Wisd. 7:20, thyMOI the-RIo-n: Plutarch, Gryll. 4, in fine; and Pyrrh. 16, PNEUmatos mesTOS kai thyMOU, full of animosity and rage). Thus the Stoics, who dealt much in definitions and distinctions, defined thyMOS as orGE- archoMEne- (Diogenes Laertius, vii. I. 63. 114); and Ammonius: thyMOS men ESti PROSkairos orGE- de polyCHRONois mne-sikaKIa. Aristotle, too, in his wonderful comparison of old age and youth, thus characterizes the angers of old men (Rhet. ii. II): kai hoi thyMOI, oxEIS men EIsin, asthenEIS de--like fire in straw, quickly blazing up, and as quickly extinguished (cf. Euripides, Androm. 728, 729). Origen (in Ps. ii. 5, Opp. vol. ii. p. 541) has a discussion on the words, and arrives at the same re- sults: diaPHERei de thyMOS orGE-S, to- thyMON men EInai orGE-N anathymio-MENe-n kai Eti ekkaioMENe-n. orGE-N de Orexin antitimo-RE-seo-s: cf. in Ep. ad Rom. 2:8, which only exists in the Latin: �ut si, verbi gratia, vulnus aliquod pessimum iram ponamus, hujus autem tumor et distentio indignatio vulneris appelletur:� so too Jerome (in Ephes. iv. 31): �Furor [thyMOS] incipiens ira est, et fervescens in animo indignatio. Ira [orGE-] autem est, quae furore extincto desiderat ultionem, et eum quem nocuisse putat vult laedere.� This agrees with the Stoic definition of orGE-, that it is. timo-RIas epithyMIa tou doKOUNtos e-dike-SKEnai ou prose-KONto-s (Diogenes Laertius, vii. 113). So Gregory Nazianzene (Carm. 34. 43, 44)

thyMOS men EStin athROos ZEsis PHREnos,
orGE- de thyMOS emMENo-n

And so too Theodoret, in Ps. 68:25 (69:24, English version), where the words occur together: diA tou thyMOU to taCHY deDE-lo-ke, diA de te-s orGE-S to ePImonon. Josephus in like manner (B.J. ii. 8. 6) describes the Essenes as orGE-S taMIai DIkaioi, thyMOU kathektiKOI. Dion Cassius in like manner notes as one of the characteristic traits of Tiberius, orGIzeto en hois HE-kista ethyMOUto (Vita Tib.).

ME-Nis (Isa. 16:6; Ecclus. 28:4; �ira perdurans,� Datum's Lex. Hom.) and KOtos, being successively �ira inveterata' and �ira inveteratissima� (John of Damascus, De Fid. Orthod. II. 16), nowhere occur in the NT.

parorgisMOS, a word not found in classical Greek, but several times in the LXX (as at I Kings 15:30; 2 Kings 19:3), is not=orGE-, though we have translated it �wrath.� This it cannot be; for the parorgisMOS (Eph. 4:26, where only in the NT the word occurs; but parorGIzein, Rom. 10:19; Eph. 6:4), is absolutely forbidden; the sun shall not go down upon it; whereas under certain conditions orGE- is a righteous passion to entertain. The Scripture has nothing in common with the Stoics' absolute condemnation of anger. It inculcates no aPATHeia, but only a metrioPATHeia, a moderation, not an absolute suppression, of the passions, which were given to man as winds to fill the sails of his soul, as Plutarch excellently puts it (De Virt. Mor. 12). It takes no such loveless view of other men's sins as his who said, seauTON me- TARasse. hamarTAnei tis; heauTO- hamarTAnei (Marcus Antoninus, iv. 46). But even as Aristotle, in agreement with all deeper ethical writers of antiquity (thus see Plato, Legg. v. 731 b: thymoeiDE- men CHRE- PANta ANdra EINai, k.t.l; Thompson's Phaedrus of Plato, p. 166; and Cicero, Tusc. Quaest. iv. 19), had affirmed that, when guided by reason, anger is a right affection, so the Scripture permits, and not only permits, but on fit occasions demands, it. This all the profounder teachers of the Church have allowed; thus Gregory of Nyssa agaTHON kte-NOS EStin ho thyMOS, HOtan tou logisMOU hypoZYgion GENe-tai: and Augustine (De Civ. Dei, ix. 5): 'In discipline nostra non tam quaeritur utrum pius animus irascatur, sed quare irascatur.� There is a "wrath of God" (Matt. 3:7; Rom. 12:19, and often), who would not love good, unless He hated evil, the two being so inseparable, that either He must do both or neither; 4 a wrath also of the merciful Son of Man (Mark 3:5); and a wrath which righteous men not merely may, but, as they are righteous, must feel; nor can there be a surer and sadder token of an utterly prostrate moral condition than the not being able to be angry with sin--and sinners. �Anger,� says Fuller (Holy State, iii. 8), �is one of the sinews of the soul; he that wants it hath a maimed mind, and with Jacob sinew-shrunk in the hollow of his thigh, must needs halt. Nor is it good to converse with such as cannot be angry.� �The affections,� as another English divine has said, �are not, like poisonous plants, to be eradicated; but as wild, to be cultivated.� St. Paul is not therefore, as so many understand him, condescending here to human infirmity, and saying, �Your anger shall not be imputed to you as a sin, if you put it away before nightfall' (see Suicer, Thes. s. v. orGE-); but rather, �Be ye angry, yet in this anger of yours suffer no sinful element to mingle; there is that which may cleave even to a righteous anger, the parorgisMOS, the irritation, the exasperation, the embitterment (�exacerbatio�), which must be dismissed at once; that so, being defecated of this impurer element which mingled with it, that only may remain which has a right to remain.'

Note 1: It is commonly translated �furor� in the Vulgate. Augustine (Enarr. in Ps. 87:8) is dissatisfied,with the application of this word to God, �furor' being commonly attributed to those out of a sound mind, and proposes �indignatio� in its room. For another distinction, ascribing �ira� and �furor� alike to God, see Bernard, Serm. in Cant. 69, �3; a remarkable passage.

Note 2: In agaNAKte-sis St. Basil finds the further thought that this eagerness to punish has the amendment of the offender for its scope. Certainly the one passage in the NT where agaNAKte-sis occurs (2 Cor. 7:11) does not refuse this meaning.

Note 3: Hampole in his great poem, The Pricke of Conscience, does not agree. In his vigorous, but most unlovely picture of an old man, this is one trait:--

�He es lyghtly wrath, and waxes fraward,
Bot to turne hym fra wrethe, it es hard.'

Note 4: See on this anger of God, as the necessary complement of his love, the excellent words of Lactantius (De Ira Dei, c. 4): �Nam si Deus non irascitur impiis et injustis, nec pios utique justosque diligit. In rebus enim diversis aut in utramque partem moveri necesse est, aut in nullam.�

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Word:  qa^TSAPH (7107)
  • Strong's:
    qa^TSAPH, kaw-tsaf'; a primitive root.
    To crack off, i.e. (figurative) burst out in rage. KJV "(be)anger (-ry), displease, fret self, (provoke to) wrath (come), be wroth".
  • Baker & Carpenter:
    qa-s.ap_: A verb meaning to be angry, to provoke to anger. The word refers to anger that arose because people failed to perform their duties properly.
    • Pharaoh was angry with his baker and butcher (Gen. 40:2; 41:10)
    • Moses was angry with the people for hoarding manna. (Ex. 16:20)
    • Aaron's sons' apparent failure to follow rules of sacrifice. (Lev. 10:16)
    • And the captains' failure to finish off the enemy. (Num. 31:14)
    • King Ahasuerus was also angry with Vashti for failing to show off her beauty when summoned. (Esth. 1:12)
    • The word often expressed an authority being angry with a subject but not always. (2 Kings 3:19; Esth. 2:21)
    • Sometimes the anger was not justified. (2 Kings 5:11; Jer. 37:15)
    • The word could also refer to God being angry or provoked. (Deut. 9:7, 8, 22; Zech. 1:2; 8:14)
    • An anger that could be aroused by a corporate failure to keep troublemakers in line. (Num. 16:22; Josh. 22:18)
    • A reflexive form of the word, as if the anger was unable to find a reasonable object and thus caused the occult practitioners to fret themselves. (Isa. 8:21)
  • Mounce:
    qa-s.ap, GK 7911, (S 7107), Word occurs 34 times.
    • [Q] To be angry.
    • [H] To provoke to anger.
    • [Ht] To be enraged.

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