Word: ze-LOo- (2206)
ze-LOo-, dzay-lo'-o; from ZE-los (2205).
To have warmth of feeling for or against. KJV "affect, covet (earnestly), (have) desire, (move with) envy, be jealous over, (be) zealous (-ly affect)".
Contracted ze-LO-, future ze-LO-so-, from ZE-los (2205), zeal.
- To be zealous, filled with zeal, zealously affected, whether in a good or bad sense. (Acts 17:5; Gal. 4:17,18; Rev. 3:19)
- To make a show of zeal, to profess affection in order to gain someone as a follower. (Gal. 4:17)
- To desire zealously. (1 Cor. 12:31; 14:1,39; LXX: Prov. 3:31)
- To be jealous over someone in a good sense, to love. (2 Cor. 11:2; LXX: 2 Sam. 21:2; Prov 24:1)
- To envy, be moved with envy. (Acts 7:9; James 4:2)
GK 2420 (S 2206) Word occurs 11 times.
- To have strong affection towards, be ardently devoted to. (2 Cor. 11:2)
- To make a show of affection and devotion towards. (Gal. 4:17)
- To desire earnestly, aspire eagerly after. (1 Cor. 12:31; 14:1, 39)
- Absolutely, to be fervent, to be zealous. (Rev. 3:19)
- To be jealous, envious, spiteful. (Acts 7:9; 17:5; 1 Cor. 13:4; Jas. 4:2)
- Passive, to be an object of warm regard and devotion. (Gal. 4:18)
- Desire eagerly: ze-loo- means to be "zealous" or "jealous". It is related to the noun ze-los ("jealousy, zeal," GK 2419). In classical Greek this word group sometimes carried a positive sense (eager striving, enthusiasm, or praise) and sometimes a negative sense (jealously, ill will, or envy). The same applies to the NT. Note Paul's challenge, "Follow the way of love and eagerly desire spiritual gifts". (1 Cor. 14:1, 12, 39)
- Envy: Note the text "Love does not envy." (1 Cor. 13:4)
- The NT uses ze-loo- in a positive sense.
- Paul is deeply concerned about the church of Corinth and declares, "I am jealous for you with a godly jealousy [ze-los]." (2 Cor. 11:2) Just as a husband is appropriately jealous if his wife flirts with another man, so Paul is jealous because the Corinthians, whom he intended to present to Christ "as a pure virgin," were going astray after false prophets and apostles.
- Note too what Paul wrote about good zeal, "It is fine to be zealous, provided the purpose is good." (Gal. 4:18)
- But elsewhere in the NT, ze-loo- is linked with harmful intent.
- It can denote envy. (1 Cor 13:4)
- It can mean covet: "You kill and covet, but cannot have what you want." (Jas. 4:2)
- The Jews who caused Paul problems in Thessalonica were "jealous" of him. (Acts 17:5)
- Paul warns the church of Galatia to be cautious of those who stress circumcision, for they have set their hearts on them. "They are zealous to win you over, but for no good. What they want is to alienate you from us, so that you may be zealous for them." (Gal. 4:17)
- Affect, Note: ze-loo-, akin to zeo-, to boil (Eng. zeal), means:
- To be jealous. (Acts 7:9; 17:5)
- To envy. (1 Cor. 13:4)
- To covet. (Jas. 4:2)
- In a good sense ("jealous over"). (2 Cor. 11:2)
- To desire earnestly. (1 Cor. 12:31; 14:1, 39)
- To take a warm interest in, to seek zealously. (Gal. 4:17, 18, KJV "zealously affect," "to be zealously affected". The RV corrects this to "zealously seek", etc.)
- Covet, Verb No. 2.
- Desire, Verb No. 8: To have a zeal for, to be zealous towards, whether in a good or evil sense.
- Earnestly, Note.
- Envy, Verb No. 2:
- Denotes to be zealous, moved with jealousy. (Acts 7:9, 17:5)
- "Envieth". (1 Cor. 13:4)
- Jealous, Verb No. 1: Akin to ze-los, to be jealous, to burn with jealousy (otherwise, to seek or desire eagerly).
- Rendered "moved with jealousy" in RV. In KJV, "moved with envy". (Acts 7:9; 17:5)
- "Envieth (not)". (1 Cor. 13:4)
- "Are jealous" or "desire to have". (Jas. 4:2)
- Seek, Note: RV renderings of ze-loo-, "they zealously seek," "ye may seek," "to be zealously sought". (Gal. 4:17, 18)
- Zealously, Verb No. 1: To be jealous, also signifies to seek or desire eagerly.
- "They zealously seek (you)," in the sense of taking a very warm interest in. (Gal. 4:17)
- Passive "to be zealously sought". KJV "to be zealously affected", i.e. to be the object of warm interest on the part of others. (Gal. 4:18)
- Some texts have this verb in Rev. 3:19.
- To burn with zeal.
- To be heated or to boil with envy, hatred, anger.
- In a good sense, to be zealous in the pursuit of good.
- To desire earnestly, pursue.
- To desire one earnestly, to strive after, busy one's self about him.
- To exert one's self for one (that he may not be torn from me).
- To be the object of the zeal of others, to be zealously sought after.
- To envy.
Word: ZE-los (2205)
ZE-los, dzay'-los; from ZEo- (2204).
Properly heat, that is, (figuratively) "zeal" (in a favorable sense, ardor; in an unfavorable one, jealousy, as of a husband [figuratively of God], or an enemy, malice). KJV "emulation, envy (-ing), fervent mind, indignation, jealousy, zeal".
Genitive ZE-lou, masculine noun from ZEo-, to be hot, fervent.
Unlike PHTHOnos (5355), envy, when used in a good sense, ZE-los signifies the honorable emulation with the consequent imitation of that which presents itself to the
mind's eye as excellent. According to Aristotle, ZE-los grieves, not because another has the good, but that he himself does not have it and seeks to supply the deficiency in himself. However, ZE-los may degenerate into a jealousy which makes war upon the good it sees in another, thus troubling that good and diminishing it. This is why
we find ZE-los together with Eris (2054), contention.
- Zeal, used in a good sense. (John 2:17; Rom. 10:2; 2 Cor. 7:7,11; 11:2; Col. 4:13; LXX: Ps. 69:9; 119:139)
- More often in an evil sense, meaning envy, jealousy, anger. (Acts 5:17; 13:45; Rom. 13:13; 1 Cor. 3:3; Gal. 5:20;Phil. 3:6; Heb. 10:27, "fiery wrath"; James 3:14, 16; LXX: Zeph. 1:18; 3:8)
- Joined together with Eris (2054), contention. (Rom. 13:13; 2 Cor. 12:20; Gal. 5:20)
GK 2419 (S 2205) Word occurs 16 times.
- Generous rivalry; noble aspiration; in NT zeal, ardor in behalf of, ardent affection. (John 2:17; Rom. 10:2)
- In a bad sense, jealousy, envy, malice. (Acts 13:45; Rom. 13:13)
- Indignation, wrath. (Acts 5:17)
- Earnestness: In the NT ze-los can be either a good thing or a bad thing: "zeal, earnestness" is highly commended whereas "jealousy, envy" is condemned.
- The Sadducees are jealous of Peter. (Acts 5:17)
- The Jews are jealous of Paul. (Acts 13:45)
- Jealousy shows up frequently in the vice lists of the NT. (Rom. 13:13; 2 Cor. 12:20; Gal. 5:20)
- The NT writers particularly urge that it not occur within the church. (1 Cor. 3:3; Jas. 3:14, 16)
- Zeal: ze-los as "zeal" is a positive quality.
- Jesus' actions in the temple are explained by his zeal for his Father's house. (John 2:17)
- Paul commends Israel for having a zeal for God. (Rom. 10:2; cf. Phil. 3:6)
- Paul rejoices at the zeal of the Corinthians both for him and for the ministry of giving financially. (2 Cor. 7:7, 11; 9:2)
- In fact, Paul claims that he himself is jealous of the Corinthians with a godly jealousy! (2 Cor. 11:2)
- Even more strikingly, a verse implies that God himself is zealous in his fury at his enemies. (Heb. 10:27)
- Envy, Note: ze-los, zeal or jealousy, translated "envy" in the KJV, is to be distinguished from phthonos, and, apart from the meanings "zeal" and "indignation", is always translated "jealousy" in the RV. The distinction lies in this, that envy desires to deprive another of what he has, jealousy desires to have the same or the same sort of thing for itself. (Acts 13:45; Rom. 13:13; 1 Cor. 3:3; 2 Cor. 12:20; Jas. 3:14, 16)
- Fervent, Note No. 2: The noun ze-los, zeal, is translated "fervent mind" in the KJV, "zeal" RV. (2 Cor. 7:7)
- Fierceness, Noun No. 2: ze-los, zeal, jealousy, is rendered "fierceness" (of fire). (Heb. 10:27 RV)
- Indignation, Note No. 3: The KJV translates ze-los by "indignation", RV "jealousy". (Acts 5:17)
- Jealousy, Noun No. 1: ze-los, zeal, jealousy, is rendered:
- "Jealousy" RV, "envying" or "envyings" KJV. (Rom. 13:13; 1 Cor. 3:3; Jas. 3:14, 16; 2 Cor. 12:20)
- "Jealousies" RV, "emulations" KJV. (Gal. 5:20)
- "Indignation" KJV. (Acts 5:17)
- "Envy" KJV. (Acts 13:45)
- It is used in the phrase "with a godly jealousy", literally, "with a jealousy of God" (RV margin). (2 Cor. 11:2)
- Zeal, Noun No. 1: ze-los denotes zeal in the following passages:
- With objective genitive, i.e., "zeal for Thine house". (John 2:17)
- "A zeal for God". (Rom. 10:2)
- "(Your) zeal (for me)" RV, "(your) fervent mind (toward me)" KJV. (2 Cor. 7:7)
- Used absolutely. (2 Cor. 7:11; 9:2; Phil. 3:6; Col. 4:13 in some texts)
- Excitement of mind, ardour, fervour of spirit.
- Zeal, ardour in embracing, pursuing, defending anything.
- Zeal in behalf of, for a person or thing.
- The fierceness of indignation, punitive zeal.
- An envious and contentious rivalry, jealousy.
Word: ze-lo-TE-s (2207)
ze-lo-TE-S, dzay-lo-tace'; from ze-LOo- (2206).
A "zealot". KJV "zealous".
Genitive ze-lo-TOU, masculine noun
from ze-LOo- (2206), to be zealous.
- A zealot, one zealous for or eagerly desirous of something. (1 Cor. 14:12; Titus 2:14)
- The earnest supporters of ancient Jewish law and institutions were described as zealots. (Acts 21:20; 22:3; Gal. 1:14 [cf. Num. 25:13])
- At the time of Christ, the name "Zealots" was applied to a party among the Jews, half religious, half political, founded by Judas the Galilean. These undertook to punish without trial those guilty of violating Jewish practices, under which pretext they themselves committed the greatest excesses of crime. (Acts 5:37)
GK 2421 (S 2207, 2208) Word occurs 8 times.
- Properly a generous rival, an imitator; in NT an aspirant. (1 Cor. 14:12; Tit. 2:14)
- A devoted adherent; a zealot. (Acts 21:20; 22:3; Gal. 1:14)
- Zealous, Noun No. 1: ze-lo-te-s is used adjectivally, of being zealous:
The word is, literally, "a zealot", i.e., an uncompromising partisan. The "Zealots" was a name applied to an extreme section of the Pharisees, bitterly antagonistic to the Romans. Josephus (Antiq. xviii.1.1,6; B.J. ii.8.1) refers to them as the "fourth sect of Jewish philosophy" (i.e., in addition to the Pharisees, Sadducees, and Essenes), founded by Judas of Galilee. (Acts 5:37)
- "Of the law", (Acts 21:20)
- "Toward God", literally, "of God", RV "for God". (Acts 22:3)
- "Of spiritual gifts", i.e., for exercise of spiritual gifts. Literally, "of spirits", but not to be interpreted literally. (1 Cor. 14:12)
- "For (AV, of) the traditions of my fathers", of Paul's loyalty to Judaism before his conversion. (Gal. 1:14)
- "Of good works". (Tit. 2:14)
After his rebellion in AD 6, the Zealots nursed the fires of revolt, which, bursting out afresh in AD 66, led to the destruction of Jerusalem in 70. To this sect Simon, one of the Apostles, had belonged. (Luke 6:15; Acts 1:13)
The equivalent Hebrew and Aramaic term was "Cananaean". This is not connected with Canaan, as the KJV "Canaanite" would suggest, but is derived from Hebrew qanna^, jealous. (Matt. 10:4)
- One burning with zeal, a zealot.
- Used of God as jealous of any rival and sternly vindicating his control.
- Most eagerly desirous of, zealous for, a thing.
- To acquire a thing, (zealous of).
- To defend and uphold a thing, vehemently contending for a thing.
Word: PHTHOnos (5355)
PHTHONos, fthon'-os; probably akin to the base of PHTHEIro- (5351) "to corrupt, destroy".
Ill will (as detraction), that is, jealousy (spite). KJV "envy".
GK 5784 (S 5355) Word occurs 9 times.
- Envy, jealousy, spite. (Mt. 27:18; Mk. 15:10; Rom. 1:29; Gal. 5:21; Phil. 1:15; 1 Tim. 6:4; Titus 3:3; Jas. 4:5; 1 Pet. 2:1)
- phthonos means "envy". This quality in a person is never regarded favorably in the NT. Pilate knew that it was because of "envy" that the chief priests and the leaders of the people were attempting to destroy Jesus. (Mt. 27:18; Mk. 15:10)
- The writers of the NT letters frequently include "envy" in a series of sins to be avoided. (Rom. 1:29; Gal. 5:21; Titus 3:3; 1 Pet. 2:1; cf. 1 Tim. 6:4)
- For envy, i.e. prompted by envy.
Word: philargyRIa (5365)
philargyRIa, fil-ar-goo-ree'-ah; from philARgyros (5366).
Avarice. KJV "love of money".
philargyRIas, fem. noun from philARgyros (5366), a lover of money.
- The love of money. (1 Tim. 6:10; LXX: Jer. 8:10)
GK 5794 (S 5365) Word occurs once.
- Money (love of): philargyria, from phileo-, to love, and argyros, silver. Trench contrasts this with pleonexia, covetousness. (1 Tim. 6:10)
- Love of money, avarice.
Word: auTARkeia (841)
auTARkeia, ow-tar'-ki-ah; from auTARke-s (842) "self-sufficient".
Self-satisfaction, that is, (abstractly) contentedness, or (concretely) a competence. KJV "contentment, sufficiency".
GK 894 (S 841) Word occurs 2 times.
- A competence of the necessaries of life. (2 Cor. 9:8)
- A frame of mind viewing one's lot as sufficient, contentedness. (1 Tim. 6:6)
- A perfect condition of life in which no aid or support is needed.
- Sufficiency of the necessities of life.
- A mind contented with its lot, contentment.
Word: aphilARgyros (866)
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aphilARgyros, af-il-ar'-goo-ros; from a (1 as a negative particle) and philARgyros (5366).
Unavaricious. KJV "without covetousness, not greedy of filthy lucre".
Genitive aphilarGYrou, masculine-feminine, neuter aphilARgyron, adjective from the privative a, without, and philARgyros (5366), lover of money.
- Not fond of money or covetous. (1 Tim. 3:3; LXX: Heb. 13:5)
GK 921 (S 866) Word occurs 2 times.
- Not fond of money, not covetous, generous. (1 Tim. 3:3; Heb. 13:5)
- Covetous, Covetousness, Adjective No. 3: aphilargyros, No. 2, with negative prefix, is translated
Note: Trench, Syn. sec. 24, points out the main distinction between pleonexia and philargyria as being that between covetousness and avarice, the former having a much wider and deeper sense, being "the genus of which philargyria is the species". The covetous man is often cruel as well as grasping, while the avaricious man is simply miserly and stinting.
- "Without covetousness" KJV, "free from the love of money" RV. (Heb. 13:5)
- "Not covetous" KJV, "no lover of money" RV. (1 Tim. 3:3)
- Free, Note No. 2: "Be ye free from the love of money", is an abbreviated rendering of the adjective aphilargyros (not loving money) with the noun tropos, turn (of mind); hence the margin, "let your turn of mind be free etc.", for KJV "let your conversation be without covetousness. (Heb. 13:5)
- Lover, Note: For aphilargyros, no lover of money. (1 Tim. 3:3, Heb. 13:5)
- Not loving money, not avaricious.