Word: kauCHAomai (2744)


  • Strong's:
    kauCHAomai, kow-khah'-om-ahee.
    To vaunt (in a good or a bad sense). KJV "(make) boast, glory, joy, rejoice".
  • Zodhiates:
    Contracted kauCHO-mai, future kauCHE-Somai.
    To boast, glory, exult, both in a good and bad sense.
    • Present 2nd person kauCHASai. (Rom. 2:17, 23)
    • Some Greek lexicons deduce it from auCHE-N (not found in the NT), the neck, which vain persons are apt to carry in a proud manner. (Ps. 75:5; Is. 3:16)
    • Used in an absolute sense. (1 Cor. 1:29, 31; 4:7; 2 Cor. 10:13, 17; 11:18, 30; 12:1, 6, 11; Gal. 6:14; Eph. 2:9)
    • Followed by the accusative of thing of which one boasts. (2 Cor. 9:2; 11:16, 30, with the accusative of degree)
    • Followed by en (1722), in, with the dative of that in which one glories.
      • Of things. (Rom. 2:23; 5:3; 2 Cor. 5:12; 10:15, 16; 11:12; 12:9; Gal. 6:13; James 1:9, 4:16)
      • Of persons. (1 Cor. 3:21; 2 Thess. 1:4)
      • In God. (Rom. 2:17; 5:11; 1 Cor. 1:31; 2 Cor. 10:17; Phil. 3:3)
    • Followed by ePI (1909), upon with the dative. (Rom. 5:2)
    • By kaTA (2596), according, with the accusative meaning as to anything. (2 Cor. 11:18)
    • By peRI (4012), about, with the genitive. (2 Cor. 10:8)
    • By hyPER (5228), on behalf of, with the genitive. (2 Cor. 7:14; 9:2; 12:5)
  • Mounce's:
    GK 3016 (S 2744) Word occurs 37 times.
    • To glory, boast. (Rom. 2:17, 23)
    • hyPER TInos, to boast of a person or thing, to undertake a complimentary testimony to. (2 Cor. 12:5)
    • To rejoice, exult. (Rom. 5:2, 3, 11)
    • Boast, Verb No. 1: kauchaomai means "to boast, brag, rejoice". This verb is exclusively used by Paul in the NT (34 times). It does not necessarily have a negative connotation, as might be implied by the translation "brag".
      • Its range of meaning includes both boasting in something and rejoicing or glorying in something. Whether the verb describes a positive or negative activity depends on the object of the boasting. (Rom. 5:2; 1 Cor. 1:31)
      • Paul uses it generally in a positive sense when he (or someone else) boasts or rejoices in the Lord. (2 Cor. 10:17)
      • In Christ. (Gal. 6:14)
      • In his own weakness. (2 Cor. 11:30)
      • Or in the hope of glory. (Rom. 5:2-3)
      • Paul can even use the verb to describe the proper pride he takes in the fruit he has seen in the Corinthian church, as long as it is within proper limits. (2 Cor. 7:14; 10:13)
      • This verb denotes the negative sense of bragging or prideful boasting when it describes those who boast not in God but in themselves or their own ability. (1 Cor. 4:7)
      • Whether in the wisdom of the Greeks. (1 Cor. 1:29)
      • Or in the Jews' ability to keep the law as a means of relating to God. (Rom. 2:17, 23)
      • The verb carries with it an emphasis of trusting in something, as implied by James, who criticizes those who think that they can do anything without God. (James 4:16)
      • The clear contrast between good boasting and bad boasting occurs where Paul rebukes the Judaizers for boasting in circumcision and describes his own proper boasting in Christ. (Gal 6:13-14)
    • Brag, Verb No. 1: kauCHAomai means "to boast, brag, rejoice"; it has both a positive and negative sense.
    • Rejoice, Verb No. 3.
Word: ePAIro- (1869)


  • Strong's:
    epAIro-, ep-AHEE-ro; from ePI, over, upon, etc., and AIro-, to lift.
    To raise up (literally or figuratively). KJV "exalt self", "poise (lift, take) up".
  • Zodhiates:
    To raise up.
    • Transitive, to hoist up as a sail. (Acts 27:40)
    • In the passive, to be taken up, be borne upward. (Acts 1:9)
    • Spoken of the hands, to lift up in regard to prayer and benediction. (Lk. 24:50; 1 Tim. 2:8; LXX: Ex. 17:11; Ps. 134:2)
    • To lift up the eyes, meaning to look upon. (Matt. 17:8; Lk. 6:20; 16:23; 18:13; John 4:35; 6:5; 17:1; LXX: Gen. 13:10; Ezek. 18:6)
    • The voice, meaning to cry out with a loud voice. (Lk. 11:27; Acts 2:14; 14:11; 22:22; LXX: Judg. 2:4; 9:7)
    • The head, meaning to take courage. (Lk. 21:28)
    • The heel in order to attack and injure. (John 13:18 quoted from Ps. 41:9; LXX: 1 Sam. 20:33)
    • In the middle ePAIromai, to lift up oneself, rise up against something, followed by kaTA (2596), against. (2 Cor. 10:5; LXX: Ezra 4:19; Dan. 11:14)
    • Metaphorically, to lift up or exalt oneself. (2 Cor. 11:20; LXX: Prov. 19:18; Jer. 13:15)
Word: alazoNEIa (212)


  • Strong's:
    alazoNEIa, al-ad-zon-i'-a, from alaZON, braggart.
    Braggadocio, i.e. (by implication) self-confidence. KJV "boasting", "pride".
  • Zodhiates:
    Genitive alazonEIas, feminine noun from alaZON, a boaster.
    Ostentation, boasting about what one is not or does not possess. Someone going about with empty and boastful professions of cures and other feats. An alaZON shows off that which he thinks or pretends he possesses. An ostentatious quack.
    1. A boast or boasting. (James 4:16)
    2. As joined with BIos (979), life, it means the period of extension or duration of life as contrasted to zo-E- (2222) which means the breath of life. Therefore, (alazoNEIa tou BIou) in 1 John 2:16 means showing off to fellow mortals; the pride, pomp, or manner of life; the ambitious, vainglorious pursuit of the honors, glories, and splendors of this life; the luxury of life for the purpose of showing off, whether in dress, house, furniture, servants, food.
Word: hyperAIromai (5229)


  • Zodhiates:
    Middle voice of hyperAIro-.
    To lift above, elevate, exalt, be conceited, arrogant, insolent. In the NT used only in the middle voice. (2 Cor. 12:7; 2 Thess. 2:4)
Word: hyperphroNEo- (5252)


  • Zodhiates:
    To think highly, consider something of great importance.
Word: hyperypSOo- (5251)


  • Zodhiates:
    1. An intensive meaning to make high above, raise high aloft, to highly exalt. (Phil. 2:9; LXX: Ps. 97:9, cf. 37:35)
    2. To highly exalt as in praise. (LXX: Daniel 4:34)
Word: hyperECHo- (5242)


  • Zodhiates:
    1. Transitively, to hold over or extend over something. Intransitively, to be over, be prominent, extend over or beyond. In the NT figuratively meaning to hold one above, superior or better than another. (Phil. 2:3; 4:7; LXX: Ex. 26:13; 1 Kings 8:8)
    2. Participle with neutral article as a substantive meaning excellence, "super" eminence, prominence, excellency. (Phil. 3:8)
    3. To be superior in rank, dignity. (Rom. 13:1; 1 Pet. 2:13)
Word: hyBRIzo- (5195)


  • Zodhiates:
    To act with insolence, wantonness, wicked violence, to treat injuriously. In the NT, with the accusative expressed or implied meaning to act insolently or spitefully toward someone, to treat shamefully, and therefore to injure or to abuse; to reproach. (Matt. 22:6; Luke 18:32; Acts 14:5; 1 Thess 2:2; Luke 11:45; LXX: 2 Sam. 19:43)
Trench's Synonyms, Section 29:--alaZO-N, hyperE-phanos, hybrisTE-S.

These words occur all of them together at Rom. 1:30, though in an order exactly the reverse from that in which I have found it convenient to take them. They constitute an interesting subject for synonymous discrimination.

alaZO-N, occurring twice in the Septuagint (Hab. 2:5; Job 28:8), is found as often in the N. T. (here and at 2 Tim. 3:27); while alazoNEIa, of which the Septuagint knows nothing, appears four times in the Apocrypha (Wisd. 5:8; 17:7; 2 Macc. 9:8; 15:6), and in the N. T. twice (Jam. 4:16; 1 John 2:16). Derived from Ale-, ‘a wandering about,’ it designated first the vagabond mountebanks (‘marktschreyers’), conjurors, quacksalvers, or exorcists (Acts 19:13; 1 Tim. 5:13); being joined with GOe-s (Lucian, Revivisc. 29); with PHENax (Aristophanes); with kenOS (Plutarch, Quom. in Virt. Prof. 10); full of empty and boastful professions of cures and other feats which they could accomplish; such as Volpone in The Fox of Ben Jonson (Act ii. Sc. 1). It was from them transferred to any braggart or boaster (alaZO-N kai hypERauchos, Philo, Cong. Erud. Grat. Sec. 8; while for other indifferent company which the word keeps, see Aristophanes, Nub. 445–452); vaunting himself in the possession of skill (Wisd. 17:7), or knowledge, or courage, or virtue, or riches, or whatever else it might be, which were not truly his (Plutarch, Qua quis Rat. Laud. 4). He is thus the exact antithesis of the EIRo-n, who makes less of himself and his belongings than the reality would warrant, in the same way as the alaZO-N makes more (Aristotle, Ethic. Nic. ii. 7. 12). ... As such he is likely to be a busybody and meddler, which may explain the juxtaposition of alazonEIa, and polypragmoSYne- (Ep. ad Diognetum, 4). Other words with which it is joined are blakEIa (Plutarch, De Rect. Aud. 18); TYPHos (Clement of Rome, 1 Ep. Sec. 13); agero-CHIa (2 Macc. 9:7); apaideuSIa (Philo, Migrat. Abrah. 24): while in [a] passage from Xenophon, ... the alaZOnes are distinguished from the astEIoi and eucharITe-s.

It is not an accident, but of the essence of the alaZO-N, that in his boastings he overpasses the limits of the truth (Wisd. 2:16, 17); thus Aristotle sees in him not merely one making unseemly display of things which he actually possesses, but vaunting himself in those which he does not possess; and sets over against him the ale-theutiKOS kai to- BIo- kai to- LOGo- ... We have ... a lively description of the alaZO-N in the Characters (23) of Theophrastus; and, still better, of the shifts and evasions to which he has recourse, in the treatise, Ad Herenn. iv. 50, 51. While, therefore 'boaster' fairly represents alaZO-N (Jebb suggests 'swaggerer,' Characters of Theophrastus, p. 193), 'ostentation' does not well give back alazonEIa, seeing that a man can only be ostentatious in things which he really has to show. No word of ours, and certainly not 'pride' (1 John 2:16, E. V.), renders it all so adequately as the German ‘prahlerei.’ For the thing, Falstaff and Parolles, both of them ‘unscarred braggarts of the war,’ are excellent, though marvellously diverse, examples; so too Bessus in Beaumont and Fletcher’s King and no King; while, on the other hand, Marlowe’s Tamburlaine, despite of all his big vaunting words, is no alaZO-N, inasmuch as there are fearful realities of power by which these his meGAle-s GLO-Sse-s KOMpoi are sustained and borne out. This dealing in braggadocio is a vice sometimes ascribed to whole nations; thus an EMphytos alazonEIa to the aetolians (Polybius, iv. 3; cf. Livy, xxxiii. 11); and, in modern times, to the Gascons; out of which these last have given us ‘gasconade.’ The Vulgate, translating alaZOnes, ‘elati’ (in the Rhemish, ‘haughty’), has not seized the central meaning as successfully as Beza, who has rendered it ‘gloriosi.’

A distinction has been sometimes drawn between the alaZO-N and the PERperos [he- aGApe- ou perperEUetai, 1 Cor. 13:4], that the first vaunts of things which he has not, the second of things which, however little this his boasting and bravery about them may become him, he actually has. The distinction, however, cannot be maintained (see Polybius, xxxii. 6. 5: xl. 6. 2); both are liars alike.

But this habitual boasting of our own will hardly fail to be accompanied with a contempt for that of others. If it did not find, it would rapidly generate, such a tendency; and thus the alaZO-N is often authADe-s as well (Prov. 21:24); alazonEIa is nearly allied to hyperoPSIa: they are used as almost convertible terms (Philo, De Carit. 22–24). But from hyperoPSIa to hypere-phaNIa there is but a single step; we need not then wonder to meet hyperE-phanos joined with alaZO-N: cf. Clement of Rome, 1 Ep. Sec. 16. The places in the N. T. where it occurs, besides those noted already, are Luke 1:51; Jam. 4:6; 1 Pet. 5:5; hypere-phaNIa at Mark 7:22. A picturesque image serves for its basis: the hyperE-phanos, from hyPER and PHAInomai, being one who shows himself above his fellows, exactly as the Latin ‘superbus’ is from ‘super;’ as our ‘stilts’ is connected with ‘Stolz,’ and with ‘stout’ in its earlier sense of ‘proud,’ or ‘lifted up.’ Deyling (Obss. Sac. vol. v. p. 219): ‘Vox proprie notat hominem capite super alios eminentem, ita ut, quemadmodum Saul, prae ceteris sit conspicuus, 1 Sam. 9:2.’ Compare Horace (Carm. i. 18. 15): ‘Et tollens vacuum plus nimio Gloria verticem.’

A man can show himself alaZO-N only when in company with his fellow-men; but the proper seat of the hypere-phaNIa, the German ‘hochmuth,’ is within. He that is sick of this sin compares himself, it may be secretly or openly, with others, and lifts himself above others, in honour preferring himself; his sin being, as Theophrastus (Charact. 34) describes it, kataPHROne-SIS tis PLE-N auTOU to-n ALlo-n: joined therefore with hyperoPSIa (Demosthenes, Orat. xxi. 247); with exouDEno-sis (Ps. 30:19); hyperE-phanos with authADe-s (Plutarch, Alcib. c. Cor. 4). The bearing of the hyperE-phanos toward others is not of the essence, is only the consequence, of his sin. His ‘arrogance,’ as we say, his claiming to himself of honour and observance (hyperephaNIa is joined with philodoXIa, Esth. 4:10); his indignation, and, it may be, his cruelty and revenge, if these are withheld (see Esth. 3:5, 6; and Appian, De Reb. Pun. viii. 118: hoMA kai hyperEphana), are only the outcomings of this false estimate of himself; it is thus that hyperE-phanos and epIPHthonos (Plutarch, Pomp. 24), hyperE-phanoi and barEIS (Qu. Rom. 63), hypere-phaNIa and ageroCHIa (2 Macc. 9:7), are joined together. In the hyperE-phanos we may have the perversion of a nobler character than in the alaZO-N, the melancholic, as the alaZO-N is the sanguine, the hybrisTE-S the choleric, temperament; but because nobler, therefore one which, if it falls, falls more deeply, sins more fearfully. He is one whose “heart is lifted up” (hypse-loKARDios, Prov. 16:5); one of those ta hypse-LA phronOUNtes (Rom. 12:16), as opposed to the tapeinOI te- kardIa: he is typho-thEIS (1 Tim. 3:6) or tetypho-MEnos (2 Tim. 3:4), besotted with pride, and far from all true wisdom (Ecclus. 15:8); and this lifting up of his heart may be not merely against man, but against God; he may assail the very prerogatives of Deity itself (1 Macc. 1:21, 24; Ecclus. 10:12, 13; Wisd. 14:6: hyperE-phanoi giGANtes). Theophylact therefore does not go too far, when he calls this sin akROpolis kakO-N: nor need we wonder to be thrice reminded, in the very same words, that “God resisteth the proud” (hyperePHANois antiTASsetai: Jam. 4:6; 1 Pet. 5:5; Prov. 3:34); sets Himself in battle array against them, as they against Him.

It remains to speak of hybrisTE-S, which, by its derivation from HYbris, which is, again, from hyPER (so at least Schneider and Pott; but Curtius, Grundzüge, 2nd edit. p. 473 doubts), and as we should say, ‘uppishness,’ stands in a certain etymological relation with hyperE-phanos (see Donaldson, New Cratylus, 3rd ed. p. 552). HYbris is insolent wrongdoing to others, not out of revenge, or any other motive except the mere pleasure which the infliction of the wrong imparts. So Aristotle (Rhet. ii. 2). What its flower and fruit and harvest shall be, the dread lines of aeschylus (Pers. 822) have told us. hybrisTE-S occurs only twice in the N. T.; Rom. 1:30 (‘despiteful,’ E. V.), and 1 Tim. 1:13 (‘injurious,’ E.V.; a word seldom now applied except to things; but preferable, as it seems, to ‘insolent,’ which has recently been proposed; in the Septuagint often; being at Job 40:6, 7; Isai. 2:12, associated with hyperE-phanos [cf. Prov. 8:13]; as the two, in like manner, are connected by Aristotle (Rhet. ii. 16). Other words whose company it keeps are AGrios (Homer, Od. vi. 120); aTASthalos (Ib. xxiv. 282); AITHo-n (Sophocles, Ajax, 1061); Anomos (Id. Trachin. 1076); BIaios (Demosthenes, Orat. xxiv. 169); PARoinos, agNO-Mo-n, pikROS (Id. Orat. liv. 1261); Adikos (Plato, Legg. i. 630 b); akOLastos (Apol. Socr. 26 e); Aphro-n (Phil. 45 e); hyperOPte-s (Aristotle, Ethic. Nic. iv. 3. 21); thraSYS (Clement of Alexandria, Strom. ii. 5); PHAULos (Plutarch, Def. Orac. 45); philoGELo-s (Id. Symp. 8. 5; but here in a far milder sense). In his Lucullus, 34, Plutarch speaks of one as anE-R hybrisTE-S, kai mesTOS holigoRIas aPASe-s kai thraSYte-tos. Its exact antithesis is SO-PHro-n (Xenophon, Apol. Soc. 19; Ages. x. 2; cf. praYthymos, Prov. 16:19). The hybrisTE-S is contumelious; his insolence and contempt of others break forth in acts of wantonness and outrage. Menelaus is hybrisTE-S when he would fain have withheld the rites of burial from the dead body of Ajax (Sophocles, Ajax, 1065). So, too, when Hanun, king of Ammon, cut short the garments of king David’s ambassadors, and shaved off half their beards, and so sent them back to their master (2 Sam. 10), this was HYBris. St. Paul, when he persecuted the Church, was hybrisTE-S (1 Tim. 1:13; cf. Acts 8:3), but himself hybrisTHEIS (1 Thess. 2:2) at Philippi (see Acts 16:22, 23). Our blessed Lord, prophesying the order of his Passion, declares that the Son of Man hybrisTHE-Setai (Luke 18:32); the whole blasphemous masquerade of royalty, in which it was sought that He should sustain the principal part (Matt. 27:27-30), constituting the fulfilment of this prophecy. ‘Pereuntibus addita ludibria’ are the words of Tacitus (Annal. xv. 44), describing the martyrdoms of the Christians in Nero’s persecution; they died, he would say, meth' HYBreo-s. The same may be said of York, when, in Shakespeare’s Henry VI, the paper crown is set upon his head, in mockery of his kingly pretensions, before Margaret and Clifford stab him. In like manner the Spartans are not satisfied with throwing down the Long Walls of Athens, unless they do it to the sound of music (Plutarch, Lys. Sec. 15). Prisoners in a Spanish civil war are shot in the back. And indeed all human story is full of examples of this demoniac element lying deep in the heart of man; this evil for evil’s sake, and ever begetting itself anew.

Cruelty and lust are the two main shapes in which HYBris will display itself; or rather they are not two; --for, as the hideous records of human wickedness have too often attested, the trial, for example, of Gilles de Retz, Marshal of France, in the fifteenth century, they are not two sins but one; and Milton, when he wrote, “lust hard by hate,” saying much, yet did not say all. Out of a sense that in HYBris both are included, one quite as much as the other, Josephus (Ant. i. 11. 1) characterizes the men of Sodom as hybrisTAI to men (cf. Gen. 19:5), no less than asebEIS to God. He uses the same language (Ib. v. 10. 1) about the sons of Eli (cf; 1 Sam. 2:22); on each occasion showing that by the HYBris which he ascribed to those and these, he intended an assault on the chastity of others (cf. Euripides, Hipp. 1086). Critias (quoted by aelian, V. H. x. 13) calls Archilochus LAGnos kai hybrisTE-S: and Plutarch, comparing Demetrius Poliorcetes and Antony, gives this title to them both (Com. Dem. cum Anton. 3; cf. Demet. 24; Lucian, Dial. Deor. vi. 1; and the article HYBreo-s DIKe- in Pauly’s Encyclopädie).

The three words, then, are clearly distinguishable, occupying three different provinces of meaning: they present to us an ascending scale of guilt; and, as has been observed already, they severally designate the boastful in words, the proud and overbearing in thoughts, the insolent and injurious in acts.

[The following Strong's numbers apply to this section:G213,G5197,G5244.]

Word: tapeiNOo- (5013)


  • Zodhiates:
    To humble, bring low:
    1. Particularly. (Luke 3:5, quoted from Is. 40:4)
    2. Figuratively as to condition, circumstances, to bring low, to humble, abase. With the accusative heauTON, to humble himself, to make himself of low condition, to be poor and needy. (Matt. 18:4; 2 Cor. 11:7; Phil. 4:12; LXX: Prov. 13:7; Is. 2:9,12)
    3. In mind, to make humble through disappointment. (2 Cor. 12:21; Matt. 23:12; Luke 14:11; 18:14)
    4. With the idea of contrition and penitence toward God. (James 4:10; 1 Pet. 5:6; LXX: Is. 5:15; 10:33; Gen. 16:9; Is. 58:3,5)

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