Word: anECHomai (430)


  • To forbear.
  • A synonym of makrothyMEI "suffereth long" and hypomoNEI "endureth [all things]". (1 Cor. 13:4, 7)
Word: makrothyMEo- (3114)


  • To be long-suffering, usually toward people.
  • The citation form of makrothyMEI, "suffereth long". (1 Cor. 13:4)
Word: hypoMENo- (5278)


  • To suffer, endure, be patient, usually toward circumstances.
  • The citation form of hypomoNEI, "endureth [all things]". (1 Cor. 13:7)
Word: kalYPto- (2572)


  • Strong's:
    kalYPto-, kal-oop'-to, akin to KLEPto- (2813), to steal, and KRYPto- (2928), to conceal.
    To cover up (literally or figuratively). KJV "cover, hide".
  • Zodhiates:
    kalYPto-; future kalYPso-.
    To envelop, wrap around as bark, skin, shell or plaster, to cover over. Used transitively:
    1. To cover. (Matt. 8:24; Luke 8:16; 23:30; LXX: Gen. 7:19; Ex. 8:6)
    2. By implication, to hide, the same as KRYPto- (2928), to hide. (Matt. 10:26; 2 Cor. 4:3)
      • To cause a multitude of sins to be overlooked and not punished. (James 5:20; 1 Pet. 4:8)
        • Compare where the verb epikalYPto- (1943), to conceal, is used. (Ps. 32:1)
  • Thayer's:
    kalYPto-; future kalYPSo-; 1 aorist eKAlypsa; passive, present infinitive kalYPtesthai; perfect participle kekalymmenos; (allied with KRYPto-; Vanicek, p. 1091; Curtius, Das Verbum, i. 242); the LXX for kis.s.a^h; often in Homer, Tragg. and other poets, more rarely in prose.
    To cover, cover up; properly.
    • tina. (Luke 23:30)
    • ti TIni, a thing with anything. (Luke 8:16)
    • Passive. (Matthew 8:24)
    • Tropically, to hide, veil, i. e. to hinder the knowledge of a thing: perfect passive. (Matthew 10:26; 2 Corinthians 4:3)
    • PLE-thos hamartiO-N, not to regard or impute them, i. e. to pardon them. (1 Peter 4:8)
    • To procure pardon of them from God. (James 5:20; cf. Psalm 84:3)
Word: katakalYPto- (2619)


  • Strong's:
    katakalYPto-, kat-ak-al-oop'-to, from katA (2596) down from, against, and kalYPto- (2572), to cover.
    To cover wholly, i.e. veil. KJV "cover, hide".
  • Zodhiates:
    katakalYPto-; future katakalYPso-, from katA (2596), an intensifier, and kalYPto-, to cover.
    To cover with a veil or something which hangs down, hence, to veil.
    1. In the passive, katakalYPtomai, to be covered, veiled, to wear a veil. The covering here involves either the hair of a woman hanging down or, in case that may not be possible, the veil. It must be remembered in this connection that women of loose morals, especially the prostitute priestesses of the temple of Aphrodite at Corinth, kept their hair very short in order to be distinguished for what they were. This was strictly forbidden for Christian women in order that no one would mistake them as women of loose morals. What happened, however, when one of these prostitute priestesses was saved in Corinth? Since she could not grow her hair immediately, she used a veil to cover her head to show that she no longer belonged to the prostitute caste. (1 Cor. 11:6,7)
  • Thayer's:
    katakalYPto-; the LXX for kis.s.a^h; from Homer down.
    To cover up.
    • Middle present katakalYPtomai, to veil or cover oneself. (1 Corinthians 11:6)
    • te-n kephalE-N. (1 Corinthians 11:7)
Word: epikalYPto- (1943)


  • Strong's:
    epikalYPto-, ep-ee-kal-oop'-to; from epi (1909), on, to, against, and kalYPto- (2572), to cover.
    To conceal, i.e. (figuratively) forgive. KJV "cover".
  • Zodhiates:
    epikalYPto-; future epikalYPso-, from epI (1909), over, and kalYPto- (2572), to cover.
    To cover over. (LXX: Num. 4:11)
    1. In the NT, metaphorically, to cover over sins, i.e., to forgive, pardon. (Rom. 4:7 quoted from Ps. 32:1)
  • Thayer's:
    epikalYPto-; 1 aorist epekalyphthe-n.
    To cover over.
    • hai hamarTIai epikalyptontai, are covered over so as not to come to view, i.e. are pardoned. (Romans 4:7 from Psalm 32:1 [LXX Ps. 31])
Word: KRYPto- (2928)


  • Strong's:
    KRYPto-, kroop'-to; a primary verb.
    To conceal (properly, by covering). KJV "hide (self), keep secret, secret(-ly)".
  • Zodhiates:
    KRYPto-; future KRYPso-.
    To hide, conceal.
    • In the middle/passive to hide oneself, to be hidden.
      • 2nd aorist passive eKRUBe-n, was hidden. (Matt. 5:14; Luke 19:42)
      • With the middle meaning to hide oneself. (John 8:59; 1 Tim. 5:25)
      • Where "the hidden manna" symbolizes the enjoyments of the kingdom of heaven in allusion, perhaps, to the Jewish tradition that the ark with the pot of manna was hidden by order of King Josiah and will again be brought to light in the reign of the Messiah. (Rev. 2:17)
    • To be hidden in something.
      • With en (1722), in, followed by the dative. (Matt. 13:44; 25:25; Col. 3:3)
      • With eis (1519), in, and the accusative. (Rev. 6:15)
      • Followed by apO (575), from, and the genitive, meaning to hide from. (Luke 18:34; Rev. 6:16)
        • Christ's word made hidden, i.e., the people did not understand that Christ came to give them peace. (Luke 19:42)
        • He hid Himself from them by miraculously causing others not to recognize Him. (John 12:36)
      • Perfect middle participle kekrymMENos, hiding Himself or hidden as an adverb, secretly. (John 19:38)
    • Thayer's:
      KRYPto-: 1 aorist Ekrypsa; passive, perfect 3 person singular KEkryptai, participle kekrymMENos; 2 aorist eKRYBe-n (so also in the LXX); (cf. kalYPto-; from Homer down); the LXX for kis.s.a^h, kiche^dh, t.a^man, tsa^phan, his.:tiyr, hech:diy'; to hide, conceal.
      1. Properly.
        • ti. (Matthew 13:44)
        • Passive. (Hebrews 11:23; Revelation 2:17)
        • kryBE-Nai equivalent to to be hid, escape notice. (Matthew 5:14; 1 Timothy 5:25)
        • eKRYbe- (quietly withdrew), eKRYbe- kai exE-Lthen, i.e. departed secretly (John 8:59)
        • KRYPto- ti en with the dative of place. (Matthew 25:25)
        • Passive KEkryptai ... en to- theo-, is kept laid up with God in heaven. (Colossians 3:3)
        • ti eis ti. (Luke 13:21)
        • heauTON eis with the accusative of place. (Revelation 6:15)
        • tina aPO proSO-pou TInos from the view of anyone, i. e. to take away, rescue, from the sight. (Revelation 6:16)
        • eKRYBe- ap' auTO-N, withdrew from them. (John 12:36)
      2. Metaphorically, to conceal (that it may not become known).
        • kekrymMENos, clandestine. (John 19:38)
        • ti aPO TInos, the genitive of person. (Matthew 11:25)
        • (Luke 18:34)
        • kekrymMENa, things hidden i.e. unknown, used of God's saving counsels. (Matthew 13:35)
        • ap' ophthalMO-N TInos. (Luke 19:42)

    Back to Top

Other Ancient Sources
Ignatius (35 or 50 to 98 or 110 AD), Epistle to Polycarp:--Let not those who seem worthy of credit, but teach strange doctrines, fill thee with apprehension. Stand firm, as does an anvil which is beaten. It is the part of a noble athlete to be wounded, and yet to conquer. And especially, we ought to bear all things for the sake of God, that He also may bear with us. Be ever becoming more zealous than what thou art. Weigh carefully the times. Look for Him who is above all time, eternal and invisible, yet who became visible for our sakes; impalpable and impassible, yet who became passible on our account; and who in every kind of way suffered for our sakes.

Let not those who seem worthy of credit, but teach strange doctrines, (1 Tim. 1:3; 6:3) fill thee with apprehension. Stand firm, as does an anvil which is beaten. It is the part of a noble athlete to be wounded, and yet to conquer. And especially we ought to bear all things for the sake of God, that He also may bear with us, and bring us into His kingdom. Add more and more to thy diligence; run thy race with increasing energy; weigh carefully the times. Whilst thou art here, be a conqueror; for here is the course, and there are the crowns. Look for Christ, the Son of God; who was before time, yet appeared in time; who was invisible by nature, yet visible in the flesh; who was impalpable, and could not be touched, as being without a body, but for our sakes became such, might be touched and handled in the body; who was impassible as God, but became passible for our sakes as man; and who in every kind of way suffered for our sakes.

John Chrysostom (c.349-407), Homily 33:--Seest thou how by degrees love makes her nursling an angel? For when he is void of anger, and pure from envy, and free from every tyrannical passion, consider that even from the nature of man he is delivered from henceforth, and hath arrived at the very serenity of angels.

Nevertheless, he is not content with these, but hath something even more than these to say: according to his plan of stating the stronger points later. Wherefore he saith, "beareth all things." From her long-suffering, from her goodness; whether they be burdensome, or grievous, or insults, or stripes, or death, or whatsoever else. And this again one may perceive from the case of blessed David. For what could be more intolerable than to see a son rising up against him, and aiming at the usurpation, and thirsting for a father's blood? Yet this did that blessed one endure, nor even so could he bear to throw out one bitter expression against the parricide; but even when he left all the rest to his captains, gave a strong injunction respecting his safety. For strong was the foundation of his love. Wherefore also it "beareth all things."

Augustine (354-430), On Patience:--They which say these things, do not understand that as well each one of the wicked is in that measure for endurance of any ills more hard, in what measure the lust of the world is mightier in him; as also that each one of the just is in that measure for endurance of any ills more brave, in what measure in him the love of God is mightier. But lust of the world hath its beginning from choice of the will, its progress from enjoyableness of pleasure, its confirmation from the chain of custom, whereas "the love of God is shed abroad in our hearts," (Rom. 5:5) not verily from ourselves, but "by the Holy Spirit which is given unto us." And therefore from Him cometh the patience of the just, by Whom is shed abroad their love (of Him). Which love (of charity) the Apostle praising and setting off, among its other good qualities, saith, that it "beareth all things. (1 Cor. 13:7) "Charity," saith he, "is magnanimous." And a little after he saith, "endureth all things." The greater then is in saints the charity (or love) of God, the more do they endure all things for Him whom they love, and the greater in sinners the lust of the world, the more do they endure all things for that which they lust after. And consequently from that same source cometh true patience of the righteous, from which there is in them the love of God; and from that same source the false patience of the unrighteous, from which is in them the lust of the world. With regard to which the Apostle John saith; "Love not the world, neither the things that be in the world. If any man love the world, the love of the Father is not in him: because all that is in the world, is lust of the flesh, and lust of the eyes, and pride of life; which is not of the Father, but is of the world." (1 John 2:15-16) This concupiscence, then, which is not of the Father, but is of the world, in what measure it shall in any man be more vehement and ardent, in that measure becometh each more patient of all troubles and sorrows for that which he lusteth after. Therefore, as we said above, this is not the patience which descendeth from above, but the patience of the godly is from above, coming down from the Father of lights. And so that is earthly, this heavenly; that animal, this spiritual; that devilish, this Godlike. Because concupiscence, whereof it cometh that persons sinning suffer all things stubbornly, is of the world; but charity, whereof cometh that persons living aright suffer all things bravely, is of God. And therefore to that false patience it is possible that, without aid of God, the human will may suffice; harder, in proportion as it is more eager of lust, and bearing ills with the more endurance the worse itself becometh: while to this, which is true patience, the human will, unless aided and inflamed from above, doth not suffice, for the very reason that the Holy Spirit is the fire thereof; by Whom unless it be kindled to love that impassible Good, it is not able to bear the ill which it suffereth.

Augustine, On the Morals of the Catholic Church:--On fortitude we must be brief. The love, then, of which we speak, which ought with all sanctity to burn in desire for God, is called temperance, in not seeking for earthly things, and fortitude in bearing the loss of them. But among all things which are possessed in this life, the body is, by God's most righteous laws, for the sin of old, man’s heaviest bond, which is well known as a fact but most incomprehensible in its mystery. Lest this bond should be shaken and disturbed, the soul is shaken with the fear of toil and pain; lest it should be lost and destroyed, the soul is shaken with the fear of death. For the soul loves it from the force of habit, not knowing that by using it well and wisely its resurrection and reformation will, by the divine help and decree, be without any trouble made subject to its authority. But when the soul turns to God wholly in this love, it knows these things, and so will not only disregard death, but will even desire it.

Then there is the great struggle with pain. But there is nothing, though of iron hardness, which the fire of love cannot subdue. And when the mind is carried up to God in this love, it will soar above all torture free and glorious, with wings beauteous and unhurt, on which chaste love rises to the embrace of God. Otherwise God must allow the lovers of gold, the lovers of praise, the lovers of women, to have more fortitude than the lovers of Himself, though love in those cases is rather to be called passion or lust. And yet even here we may see with what force the mind presses on with unflagging energy, in spite of all alarms, towards that it loves; and we learn that we should bear all things rather than forsake God, since those men bear so much in order to forsake Him.

John Cassian (c.360-435), Conferences:--And that all the endurance, with which we can bear the temptations brought upon us, depends not so much on our own strength as on the mercy and guidance of God, the blessed Apostle thus declares: "No temptation hath come upon you but such as is common to man. But God is faithful, who will not suffer you to be tempted above that ye are able, but will with the temptation make also a way of escape, that ye may be able to bear it." (1 Cor. 10:13) And that God fits and strengthens our souls for every good work, and worketh in us all those things which are pleasing to Him, the same Apostle teaches: "May the God of peace who brought out of darkness the great Shepherd of the sheep, Jesus Christ, in the blood of the everlasting Testament, fit you in all goodness, working in you what is well-pleasing in His sight." (Heb. 13:20-21) And that the same thing may happen to the Thessalonians he prays as follows, saying: "Now our Lord Jesus Christ Himself and God our Father who hath loved us and hath given us everlasting consolation and good hope in grace, exhort your hearts, and confirm you in every good word and work." (2 Thess. 2:16-17)

John Cassian, Of the Spirit of Pride:--And when men remain in this condition, there is no doubt that this quiet and secure state of humility will follow, so that considering ourselves inferior to every one else we shall bear everything offered to us, even if it is hurtful, and saddening, and damaging--with the utmost patience, as if it came from those who are our superiors. And these things we shall not only bear with the greatest ease, but we shall consider them trifling and mere nothings, if we constantly bear in mind the passion of our Lord and of all His Saints: considering that the injuries by which we are tried are so much less than theirs, as we are so far behind their merits and their lives: remembering also that we shall shortly depart out of this world, and soon by a speedy end to our life here become sharers of their lot. For considerations such as these are a sure end not only to pride but to all kinds of sins. Then, next after this we must keep a firm grasp of this same humility towards God: which we must so secure as not only to acknowledge that we cannot possibly perform anything connected with the attainment of perfect virtue without His assistance and grace, but also truly to believe that this very fact that we can understand this, is His own gift.

Back to Top

Words from the Greek Root
Collaborative International Dictionary:
Stegnosis, noun. (Medicine) Constipation; also, constriction of the vessels or ducts.
  • adjective. (Medicine) Tending to render costive, or to diminish excretions or discharges generally.
  • noun. A stegnotic medicine; an astringent.

Oxford English Dictionary:
steganography Obs. Hist. [ad. mod. L. steganographia (Trithemius 1500), a. assumed Gr. *steganograPHIa, f. stegaNOS covered + GRAPHein to write. Cf. F. stéganographie (1567 in Hatz.-Darm.).]
The art of secret writing; cryptography. Also, cryptographic script, cipher.

  • 1569 J. Sandford tr. Agrippa's Van. Artes 97 b, Steganographie a marueilous kinde of writinge but not commonlye knowne.
  • 1591 Wotton Let. to Zouch Rel. W. (1685) 647 Concerning the Steganography I can by none of those means that I advertis'd this last Week of, pass further than I have.
  • 1593 R. Harvey Philadelphus 56 The Histories were written in some strange kind of polygraphy and steganography.
  • 1602 [J. Willis] Art Stenogr. title-p., Where-vnto is annexed a very easie direction for Steganographie, or, Secret Writing.
  • 1677 Phil. Trans. XII. 862 Steganography, (which word imports the Art of signifying ones mind to another by an occult or secret way of writing).
  • 1780 tr. Von Troil's Iceland 299, I afterwards found the same kind of steganography mentioned in a little work ascribed to Rhabanus Maurus.
  • 1823 'S. Collet' Relics Lit. 112 Steganography.
So 'steganogram, a cryptogram; stega'nographer, stega'nographist, one expert in steganography, a cryptographer; stegano'graphical a., pertaining to steganography.
  • 1562 Legh Armory 227 b, This Herehaught is no Steganographer.
  • 1588 J. Harvey Disc. Probl. 29 Whose mightie and wonderfull proceedings no Poligrapher can expresse, or Steganographer decipher. Ibid. 53 Facing it out with a certaine learned tincture, that should require as well a Steganographicall decipherer, as a logicall, or philosophicall interpreter.
  • 1727 Bailey vol. II, Steganographist, an Artist in private Writing.
  • 1753 Chesterfield in World No. 24 I. 213 One of them being already in possession (to speak in their own style) of a more brachygraphical, cryptographical and steganographical secret in writing their warrants.
  • 1780 tr. Von Troil's Iceland 299 Another hand has patched in a steganographical writing.
  • 1904 Sat. Rev. 23 July 114/2 Colonel Hime..has elucidated a steganogram contained in his [Roger Bacon's] ‘Epistola de secretis operibus’ which is decisive.

stegnotic, steg'notic, adjective and noun. Medicine. Obs. [ad. mod. L. stegnoticus, ad. Gr. stegno-tiKOS, f. stegNOUN to render costive, to stop bleeding, f. stegNOS watertight, costive, f. STEGein to cover.]

  1. adjective. Of a medicine: Adapted to arrest diarrhea, flow of blood, or other discharges; astringent, styptic.
  2. noun. A 'stegnotic' medicine.
  • 1674 Salmon Lond. Disp. (1678) 47/1 Clematis, vinca pervinca... Periwinkle, is Segnotick [sic] and Vulnerary, stops the Bloody Flux.
  • 1684 tr. Bonet's Merc. Compit. iii. 78 Applying Lint dipt in a Stegnotick.
  • 1710 Brit. Apollo III. No. 21. 2/2 We bid you consider all matter, either as Lyptyntic, Segnotic [sic], or Balsamic. Now..the Segnotic is Styptic... So that..Segnotics may be very proper in the Case.
  • 1727 Bailey vol. II, Stegnotick, binding, rendering costive.

steganograph: cryptogram
steganographer: cryptographer; one who works with ciphers
steganography: writing in a secret, hidden, or encoded manner
stegnosis: constipation
stegophilist: one who climbs buildings for sport

Steganography: Steganography (steh-gun-AH-gruh-fee) is the practice of concealing a file, message, image, or video within another file, message, image, or video. The word steganography combines the Greek words steganos (steganOS), meaning "covered, concealed, or protected", and graphein (GRAPHein) meaning "writing".

The first recorded use of the term was in 1499 by Johannes Trithemius in his Steganographia, a treatise on cryptography and steganography, disguised as a book on magic. Generally, the hidden messages appear to be (or be part of) something else: images, articles, shopping lists, or some other cover text. For example, the hidden message may be in invisible ink between the visible lines of a private letter. Some implementations of steganography that lack a shared secret are forms of security through obscurity, whereas key-dependent steganographic schemes adhere to Kerckhoffs's principle.

The advantage of steganography over cryptography alone is that the intended secret message does not attract attention to itself as an object of scrutiny. Plainly visible encrypted messages—no matter how unbreakable—arouse interest, and may in themselves be incriminating in countries where encryption is illegal. Thus, whereas cryptography is the practice of protecting the contents of a message alone, steganography is concerned with concealing the fact that a secret message is being sent, as well as concealing the contents of the message.

Steganography includes the concealment of information within computer files. In digital steganography, electronic communications may include steganographic coding inside of a transport layer, such as a document file, image file, program or protocol. Media files are ideal for steganographic transmission because of their large size. For example, a sender might start with an innocuous image file and adjust the color of every 100th pixel to correspond to a letter in the alphabet, a change so subtle that someone not specifically looking for it is unlikely to notice it.

Stegoceras ("horned roof") is a genus of plant-eating pachycephalosaurid dinosaurs that lived in what is now North America during the Late Cretaceous period.

Stegodon (meaning "roofed tooth" from the Greek words STEGein stegein 'to cover' and odOUS odous 'tooth') is a genus of the extinct subfamily Stegodontinae of the order Proboscidea. It was assigned to the family Elephantidae (Abel, 1919), but has also been placed in Stegodontidae (R. L. Carroll, 1988). Stegodonts were present from 11.6 mya to late Pleistocene, with unconfirmed records of regional survival until 4,100 years ago. Fossils are found in Asian and African strata dating from the late Miocene. They lived in large parts of Asia, East and Central Africa and North America during the Pleistocene.

Stegosaurus, meaning "roof lizard" or "covered lizard" in reference to its bony plates) is a genus of armored dinosaur. They lived during the Late Jurassic period (Kimmeridgian to early Tithonian), some 155 to 150 million years ago in what is now the western United States and Portugal. Due to its distinctive tail spikes and plates, Stegosaurus is one of the most recognizable dinosaurs. Several species have been identified in the upper Morrison Formation, represented by the remains of about 80 individuals.

A large, heavily built, herbivorous quadruped, Stegosaurus had a distinctive and unusual posture, with a heavily rounded back, short fore limbs, head held low to the ground, and a stiffened tail held high in the air. Its array of plates and spikes has been the subject of much speculation. The spikes were most likely used for defense, while the plates have also been proposed as a defensive mechanism, as well as having display and thermoregulatory functions.

Stegosaurus had a relatively low brain-to-body mass ratio. It had a short neck and small head, meaning it most likely ate low-lying bushes and shrubs. It was the largest known of all the stegosaurians (bigger than genera such as Kentrosaurus and Huayangosaurus) and, although roughly bus-sized, it nonetheless shared many anatomical features (including the tail spines and plates) with other stegosaurids.

Back to Top

Back to Study Love Main Index